The difference between a manager and a leader is that the former ensures control and rationality, her/his focus is on day to day problem solving, best means in achieving results for staff to continue to contribute to the organisation (Zaleznik,1992) . While a leader uses power to influence actions and people, focusing more on outcomes and impact, where this action has inherited risks such as the risk of losing self- control in the need for power (Zaleznik,1992). While leaders and managers have common traits such as sound communication skills, work ethics, integrity, key technical competencies, etc, yet there are some differences. These differences can be summarised as follows: Risk taking: Manager are regulators of affairs in an organisation, getting rewards from collective achievements . Therefore, to be a good manager, it requires persistence, patience, intelligence, analytical skills, and goodwill. Leaders think out of a box and work with high risk initiatives.
While managers, unlike leaders, tend to solve problems in a more conservative way and tend to tolerate mundane and practical work (Zaeznik,1992). Leaders on the other hand are risk takers. Relationships: Manager work with people to implement initiatives, solve problems, by focusing staff on policies and procedures and not on content (Zaleznik,1992). They are engrossed in how to make decisions, but not what are the rights decisions to make. While leaders attract strong feelings of identity and difference. Their human relationship might seem turbulent, intensifying motivation and often resulting in unanticipated results (Zaleznik, 1992).
Sense of self-worth: managers’ sense of self-worth is secured by ensuring and strengthening existing institutions. While leaders feel separate from their institutions, their perception of identity is different (Zaleznik, 1992). They may work in an organisation and never have a sense of belonging, always seeking opportunities for change. Vision versus objectives and goals: Managers take the short view, focus on objectives, targets, implementation and monitoring and evaluation while leaders take the long view, focusing more on a clear vision, a clear sense of purpose, and a passion to pursue that vision while aligning the organisation its vision (Allio, 2012).
Ensures control and follows day to day work implementation of an action plan (day to day work)
Sets a vision
A problem solver
Uses power to lead and influence action
Not a risk taker
Willing to take risks (balance between change and stability)
Follows rules and regulations
High levels of creativity, always thinks out of a box
Leads, inspires and motivates
Strong sense of belonging to organisation
May and may not have a sense of belonging to organisation
Works in a comfort zone
Always embracing change management, seeking new opportunities.
In health care, the Minister of Health in the State of Palestine is a leader, while the director generals, directors of various departments are managers. The former is the person who sets out the vision for the ministry, partnering with other stakeholders (UN organisations, private sector, and others) for instance in advancing the public health sector. This resulted in a reduction in infant and under five child mortality rates over the past five years. While director generals and directors are consumed with implementing the inputs needed to achieve the overall vision set out by the Minister. Thank you.
Allio, R.J., (2012), ‘Leaders and leadership – many theories, but what advice is reliable?.’ Strategy and Leadership. [Online], 41, (1), pp. 4-14. Available online from: http://www.emeraldinsight.com.ezproxy.liv.ac.uk/doi/pdfplus/10.1108/10878571311290016 (Accessed on: 19 January 2015). Zaleznik, A., (1992), Managers and leaders: Are they different?’ Harvard Business Review. [Online], 70 (2), pp 126-135. Available from: http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liv.ac.uk/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=ef29e84c-a001-4d56-9f66-b5f4a202c402%40sessionmgr4001&hid=4202 (Accessed