I was deployed at the Elementary Department of the New Era University under the mentorship of my cooperating teacher, Prof. Samuel Bayang, Reading coordinator of the division and the adviser of Grade 6 Simon, the department’s upper hetero section which is composed of 33 scholarly pupils. Given the chance by our supervisor, Dr. Corazon Liwayway, Principal of the Elementary Department, to observe the teachers teaching on student teachers’ designated classroom assignments in preparation on our apprenticeship which commenced on the fourth week of July, I conducted my observation on Prof.
Bayang’s strategies and methodologies in teaching Reading with his permission. Before I start my observation, I made a list of potential strategies and methodologies that a Reading teacher may use by reading Prof. Bayang’s RAP journals and his books that are concerned on improving and improvising teaching strategies in Reading to facilitate better learning in the class. One of which is Dr. Rizalina R. Santos’s “Strategies and Methodologies in Teaching Reading”.
After buying some time to read his books and RAP journals, which has been a great help not only by finishing this journal observation but also for introducing me on a different level of teaching Reading, I completed a list of probable techniques which I cultured on my readings that might help me on noting and distinguishing informative matters on my observation. Upon accomplishing the list of techniques I made, I turned my attention on familiarizing myself on the conducts of teaching Reading to grade school pupils by painstakingly researching on-line clippings, journals and researches that I compiled and read later on.
Some of those on-line materials I had are Asia E-University’s module regarding “Motivation in the Classroom” which mainly discusses upraising motivation in the classroom through various techniques such as presenting spring boards that serves as an introduction to a particular Reading materials most likely epics, novels, short stories and the like. Also, it discourses the art of questioning that is incorporated with real life situation that happens in the everyday set up of a conventional public schools mostly located on rural parts of Asia-Pacific countries.
It also offered a study regarding on demeanors in teaching Reading in both private and public schools which caught my attention. I list down the conducts and citations in the research presented and included it on the list which I made beforehand. An article entitled, “Using stories – Teaching training” which was copyrighted by The BBC | British Council also helped me on advancing further on completing my observational checklist and for formulating questions that I may ask to Prof. Bayang after I conclude my observation.
The article taught me how stories can be used in class with primary or lower secondary aged pupils. The ideas can be easily used without access to storybooks or computers; the focus is on the teacher reading aloud a printed story or telling a story orally and designing motivating tasks around this. As of my prime concern in looking for conducts in teaching Reading, it provided a detailed approach on presenting practical ideas on exploiting stories in the classroom while considering the benefits of using stories in both Reading and Language classrooms.
It also offers a broad knowledge on conducting active learning through interactive discussions and group works, subject matter generalizations and reflections regarding the stories read by the pupils. July 23, 2012 OBSERVATION After spending enormous time on researching and collecting data that may help me, I printed an approved and improved format of a detailed lesson plan which I made during my demonstration teaching in MSC 5-05 under Dr. Lucila Bondoc then I proceeded on my observation. On the preliminary phase on July 23, 2012 of my observation, I sat at the back of the classroom while Prof.
Bayang is teaching his advisory class about Facts and Opinions”. During the discussion, I noticed the systematic flow of events. The class was started by an opening prayer led by Maverick del Mundo at 7:00 a. m. The prayer was followed by the checking of orderliness and cleanliness of the classroom. Because the classroom was used by Prof. Bayang’s college students prior that day, he asked his pupils to check their surroundings for litters and throw those that will be seen on their trash bags. Then checking of attendance was conducted by the class’ President, Patricia Nagales, who is in-charge of monitoring the punctuality of her classmates.
She wrote the names of those pupils who are absent and tardy that day. After the prayer was conducted, the checking of the orderliness and cleanliness of the classroom was administered and the checking of the attendance was done, Prof. Bayang reviewed the class about their previous lesson which is all about contextual clues. He made the class defines contextual clues by using their own words. Then, he presented a visual aid containing exercises which he made as an interactive activity by calling pupils randomly to answer each item.
He asked those pupils to read the question and choices for the number they are called and then to determine if the pupil’s answer is correct, he asked the class whether if it is correct or not. He also asked the pupils to reason out why their classmates’ answers are correct or wrong enabling to activate their critical thinking skills. As reinforcement, Prof. Bayang gave positive feedbacks like, ‘that’s great,’ ‘well done,’ and ‘nice job’ to those pupils who tried their best to participate in the activity.
Before he proceeds to the next activity I browsed the lesson plan I printed beforehand and noticed the synchronization of activities as to Prof. Bayang’s performance. The review of the previous lesson was trailed by a reading drill about words that sound as /ch/ written on a manila paper of 5 columns and 3 rows. Words that are included in the drill are as follow: children, chili, chimney, chin, chip, chuckle, chum, chunk, church, bunch, bleach, each, peach, reach and speech. First, he read the drill by himself emphasizing the /ch/ sound on each word.
Afterwards, he asked the class to read the words after him. When the class finished reading the drill, he let the class to read the drill again by them. To accentuate the significance of the drill, he called two readers to stand in front of the class and deliver the drill once more. As follow up, Prof. Bayang gave verbal appraisal to the two readers he called on. Subsequently, he divided the class into two to present the motivation. He gave each group with a puzzle picture and asked them to assemble it for a minute. After a minute, Prof.
Bayang collected the pictures and requested for a representative of each group to interpret what was shown in the puzzle. First, he let the first group to discuss their puzzle in the class. The picture they formed is a picture of a counselor and a counselee. The pupil described the picture as a an illustration of an old woman wearing white hospital clothes seating on a chair adjacent on a wooden table with her name on top engraved on a marble tablet indicating that she’s a counselor. In front of her is a guy probably on his mid-twenty’s seeking for advice. After the first group described the picture, Prof.
Bayang called the second group’s representative. They formed the same picture just like the first group but it illustrates a different scenario. The pupil described the picture as a photo of two women on a living room. An old woman probably on her sixty’s sitting crossed legged on a mahogany oak wood furnished sofa. Beside her is a sobbing woman who is probably married because of the impression of her clothes and accessories worn. Prof. Bayang acknowledged their interpretations as true and correct. He followed the activity with questions like, what does a counselor do?
What is a counselee? Who did you often seek an advice and how frequent it is? What kind of problem do you usually encounter? How do you deal with it? Pupils became very enthusiastic and eager to answer his question because everybody was able to relate. Most especially when cited several examples that implies the needs of having guidance and counsel from someone close or dear to us. After he motivated the class, he presented the vocabulary words which later on will be seen on the selection they’ll be reading. He delivered it through contextual clues activity.
He posted a visual aid with questions and choices that corresponds each number. By means of using contextual clues, the pupils we’re able to define the meaning of patch, summarize, extract, summon, fines, testify, assurance, complainant, clues, and interrogation. When they already unlocked the meaning of the difficult words in the selection, Prof. Bayang ensued to the reading activity. First, he asked a spring board that is stated on the beginning of the selection they’re about to read then he let the pupils answered his question orally. He followed the spring board by introducing the story to the pupils.
He requested the pupils to get their book in Reading, “Reading Realm 6” by Rizalina R. Santos, Ph. D. and by writing the page numbers on the board, he asked his pupils to turn their books on the pages where the story “The Farmer and the Wise Judge” is located. When everybody is ensured to have turned their book on the prescribed pages, he asked his pupils to conclude what’s in the picture. The pupils are able to described the picture which illustrate an old Chinese judge wearing a traditional Chinese wardrobe and a peasant farmer seeking for help, After the pupils discussed their interpretation of the picture, Prof.
Bayang asked them to give the standards in silent reading. One by one, the pupils gave the standards and then Prof. baying called on readers to read each paragraph. He asked the pupils to silently read what the reader is reading so that everybody will be able to read the selection. After four to five paragraphs read, I noticed that Prof. Bayang interrupt the reading process to explain and ask the pupils what has been read. He incorporated the oral comprehension check-up in the reading activity and extended it until the entire reading activity was done.
Supplementary follow-up question was supplied to test the pupils’ comprehension skills. After the pupils were able to answer the additional questions, Prof. baying gave them ten minutes to answer the written comprehension check-up on their books which is consisted of 3 parts. The first part is recalling details, second part is story plotting, and the third part is inferring characters’ moods and feelings. While the pupils are answering their activity, I took the chance to check out the list which I made. Prof. Bayang followed the same format of lesson plan that I did before.
The execution of each activities as well as the systematic synchronization flow of discussion is well performed without mannerisms that tend to disturb the pupils’ attention. I also noticed his stance and composure, the way he carried himself is very respectable and well-mannered which is enough for him to be treated with authority and respect by his pupils and co-teachers that enables him to command reverence responsiveness. When it comes to speaking, he has a well-modulated and articulated voice that is audible throughout the whole class.
I also observed that his questioning skills stimulate discussion in different ways. He was able to probe learner’s understanding, help pupils articulate their ideas and thinking process, promote risk taking and problem solving, facilitate recall, encourage convergent and divergent thinking, stimulate curiosity and helps pupils to ask questions. After the span of ten minutes roaming around the classroom to see if his pupils are responding in the activities given and if they have queries, he asked the class if they’re done. Some pupils are not yet finish so he gave them an additional 2 minutes to work.
For those that are able to finish the activity on time, he gave them verbal appraisal and asked them to review their answer. When the additional allotted time was finished, he asked his pupils to pass their books sideways going to the center aisle at the count of five. Each count, the pupil from the innermost row passes his book on his seatmate. When the final count was given by Prof. Bayang, all books are in the center aisle. “At the count of six, all books should be at the opposite row. ” he said firmly. As he counted, the same process was done by the pupils.
After the books are delivered to each respected pupils, Prof. Bayang asked his pupils to put “corrected by” on the lower right corner of the book they received and affix their name and signature on it. While the pupils are busy following his instruction; he bought some time to post the keywords on the board. After posting the keywords, he asked the pupils to check the book their holding by looking at the keyword posted in front for two minutes. He also instructed them to tally the scores and write the sum on the upper left corner of the book they have.
When the pupils are done checking their classmates’ book, he asked them to return the books to its owner by repeating the routine they’ve done before. When the books are already returned to the owners, Prof. Bayang recorded their scores by calling their class numbers. After he recorded the scores, he asked if all names are called. Then, he let the class relaxed their selves and seat up straight and properly. He also let others go out for a water break and to comfort their selves. Once he made sure that everybody is ready and present inside the room, he started presenting to the class their lesson for that
day which is “Facts and Opinions. ” He asked the same question as he did before they read the selection, “How judges’ now-a-days decides on their cases? ” Then he called random pupils to answer. This time, pupils aren’t just enthusiastic to answer but they became more dignified and willing to answer Prof. Bayang’s question. He stated that one of the ways on how judges decide on their cases is by inspecting closely what are facts and what are opinions. He posted a visual aid which contains the definition of facts and opinions then he asked someone to read the definition and example of facts.
Afterwards, he explained it and gave the determinants to identify what’re facts and otherwise. He supplied the class with different examples and cited situations to stimulate their higher order thinking skills. Later on, he did the same procedure in explaining the idea of opinion in the class. After explaining the concept of the lesson, he asked the class if it’s clear to them and if they can move to the next activity. Everyone agreed that they have no question regarding the lesson so Prof. baying move on the application part. He divided the class into 4 groups.
The first group is in charge of “Gossip Hunter”, it is a game wherein they’re going to spot the facts and opinion in the selection read. The second group is going to perform the “One Click Act! ” activity in which they’re going to choose a scene from the selection and then they’ll present it on the class highlighting the facts and opinions in their dialogues. The third group was tasked to do the “F and O Talk Show”. They made a talked show about the selection read exposing what are the facts and opinions stated by the characters in the story. The last group did a “Journal Entry” which is made of facts and opinions in about the story.
Each group was given fifteen minutes to do their assigned task and prepare their materials and scoops. After the given allotted time, they are asked to go back to their proper seats and avoid making unnecessary noises so that the group that shall present their work will be able to present it without disturbance. Each group was given three to five minutes to present their work in front of the class. The group that made the best presentation was given verbal appraisal and plus points in their recitation. After the differentiated group work, Prof.
Bayang asked his pupils to turn their books to pages 113 and made them answered activities one to two which is all about identifying and locating facts and opinions in a given paragraph and statements. This serves as his evaluation in the discussion made. He gave them five minutes to answer the activities. After five minutes, they checked the activities the way they did in checking the written comprehension activities it was followed by the same recording of scores routine. Knowing the scores of the pupils are outstandingly promising, he didn’t give homework anymore, instead, he congratulated the class for showing an exemplary performance.
July 25, 2012 INTERVIEW After observing Prof. Samuel Bayang, I analyzed and evaluated my findings. I was amazed by the amount of the data I was able to collect upon observing him. There are a lot of notable comments I listed down regarding him but the one that really amazed me was the congruence of his discussion between his objectives and subject matter that even without looking for his lesson plan, it was clearly manifested throughout the class. There are also notable congruence between his lesson’s objectives, teaching procedures and formative test.
When it comes to his teaching procedures, his used methods and strategies that was suited to the needs and capabilities of his pupils, he was creative enough to adapt his method to the pupils’ capabilities, visual aids and other examples were used to illustrate the lesson, and he also made effective use to the formative test after teaching. I also observed his keen systematic practice in routinizing the class when it comes to the checking of attendance, agreements, practice exercises, and correcting, distributing, and collecting pupil’s outputs.
I also noticed the strict, yet pupil-friendly, order and discipline present in classroom while it’s on session. Also, the visual aids that were used by Prof. Bayang were within reach during his teaching which made him easy to assemble his materials during the session. Before I observed him, I thought that it will be just a meager observation but I was mistaken. It left me with several inquiries that challenged me to come up with an interview. So I enumerated my findings and made a narrative report about it which helps me to formulate questions regarding my curiosity towards the way he taught his pupils.
Upon completing my questions for my interview, I instigated my plans. I came up to school early on Wednesday of July 25, 2012 where I was schedule to meet Prof. Bayang in preparation of my first on the job training which was due in July 26, 2012. First, he instructed me to make my instructional materials while he was editing my lesson plan. I took the chance to ask him about himself. I learned that he graduated in Philippine Normal University twith Bachelor Degree in Elementary Education major in Reading.
He has been in the department for 15 years with her wife, Ma’am Bessie Bayang, Elementary Registrar, and that he has three son who is currently enrolled in the elementary and high school department of the university. I was uncomfortable to ask him about his life because talking about something which doesn’t concern me is not my interest so I went directly to my concern. I asked him if his using a lesson plan in teaching. He said that it’s not necessary anymore to use a lesson plan in his case because his already a professional licensed teacher already.
In fact, according to him, the department does not require them to do so because of their heavy loads in teaching though sometimes they most especially when the subject matter is tough or new to him, he make a guide to help him manage his time during his discussion. Using my research made list, I asked him if his familiar with the basal reading approach or the basal type lesson plan. He said that he is fully aware of it. He says that good basal reading programs cover all aspects of reading learning (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension) in a systemic, explicit and comprehensive way.
They are intended to teach children to read at or above grade-level expectations and give those all the skills they need to make reading progress. Regarding to its effectiveness, he stated that, it’s very helpful and child friendly approach because basal reading program is a core reading program that is used to teach children to read thoroughly. He also discussed that the term “basal” comes from the word “base,” as the program acts as the basis for the lessons that teach children reading skills. Basal reading programs are mainly used by school districts, as they are generally too expensive for most homeschoolers and tutoring centers.
This discussion with him opened me the chance to ask him a lot about his approaches in teaching Reading. He specified that there are a lot of approaches in teaching Reading and its affectivity varies according to the learning style and needs of our pupils because no matter how detailed and proven an approach is, it won’t easily suits everyone’s need. “Teaching is not a one size fits all profession. Further study and researches are needed to cater the needs of your pupils. Hindi tayo focus sa iisang bagay lang, ang target natin, LAHAT.
And when we say LAHAT we deal with diversity and there comes the bigger picture. You should know that. ” Prof. Bayang boldly said. Having my research as my guideline, I asked him if his accustomed with Marungko approach. He told me one of his seminars he attended in Manila hotel sometime during the year 2011. He also showed me one of his RAP journals about Marungko approach. He conversed it is a technique by which instead of the usual arrangement (or order) of letters, Marungko starts with m, s, a, i, and so forth. The alphabets are rather “pronounced” than read. Then he cited an example.
“The alphabet “m” would be pronounced as “mmm” not the old Pinoy style of reading it as “ma”. Learning the pronunciation of just a few of the letters would actually help the child read a few more words. ” he explained. Then I asked if his aware of the “Four Pronged Approach”. On his old large file case, he brought out an envelope and gave it to me. I opened it and found out a compact disk entitled “The Four Pronged Approach” along with it are five samples of four pronged approach lesson plans. He handed another envelope which contains five books and told me that those are the books from where the lesson plan was formed.
In a short while after he fixed his files that went topsy-turvy above his glass framed table, he turned his attention to me. He offered a close discussion about the “Four Pronged Approach” from which at that point I have limited knowledge. He discoursed that the four-pronged approach was first developed by Professor Basilisa Manhit of the College of Education, University of the Philippines, Diliman as stated on the readings and clippings he was holding. He stated that the philosophical foundations of the four-pronged approach are the following: literature-based, holistic, and places emphasis on the process of transfer.
He also stressed that the four pronged approach is composed of four parts: genuine love for reading (GLR), which aims to immerse the child in literature and develop a deep and lasting love for reading. Critical reading this offers a story/poetry reading, and then afterwards the children are asked to answer the motive question. A discussion then unfolds the events and beauty of the selection. This discussion should succeed in imparting the message of the story. The children arrive at this on their own pace of realization guided by the questions of the teacher. The children are trained to reflect on the story.
They soon become accustomed to critical thinking (CT), the second prong. The third prong follows which is the mastery of the structures of the language now also named Grammar and Oral Language Development (GOLD). He indicated that through this method of sharing literature, vocabulary is developed, attention span is lengthened, listening comprehension is honed and critical thinking, applied daily, becomes a habit.
The last prong follows immediately, the transfer stage (TS). This prong is also planned and implemented as systematically as the three prongs. “This is the prong where reading readiness activities are given to the pupils.
” Prof. Bayang said. As for my final question, I asked him what approach in teaching Reading he prefers. He took a deep breath eyeing for my buried lesson plan that he was halfway finished on editing throughout our 30 minutes interview.
He looked towards the direction of my hand which is swiftly writing the information he shared. At first, I thought he was skeptical or somewhat cynical about his answer then he precipitously said, “None. ” I was stunned. I didn’t expect he would answer such so I smiled back in return and ask, “why? ” He lowered his head and examines my lesson plan.
I can see his passion and dedication as his hands swiftly write his comments on my red ink filled lesson plan. “As I have said a while ago, teaching is not a one size fits all profession. ” he said with a truncated voice. “Pag teacher ka, kailangan lahat nakikita mo. At dapat marunong kang mag-value. And by valuing, there comes the answer to your question. ” he’s smiling while he’s talking. There has been a long pause. I wanted to break the silence so I attempted to asked, “wh-.. ” He interrupted my statement so I lay back on the arm chair I was seated. “There is a lot of things you really need to know.
He-he! ” He laughed. “Appreciating someone’s value or purpose might it be good or bad is the perhaps the best job a teacher does that is hidden to the eyes of people. ” He said smirking. “Wala naman talagang best na approach o strategy o method na best o appropriate sa pagtuturo ng Reading, o Language, o Science o ano pa man.
Sa trabaho natin, kailangan mo lang maging totoo at maging appreciative sa bata. Kasi ‘yong maging maka-bond mo sila, that enables you to think of a best approach to deal with their personality. At sa pagtuturo, hindi naman talaga learning style of habit ang inaalam natin e. Kundi ‘yong personality, ‘yong attitude.
You need to acquaint yourself on the child’s nature first for you to teach him. Most especially when teaching Reading. Your teaching them kasi not just a simple subject e, your teaching them a way of living, a part of life. ” He said seriously. “Kaya ang sagot ko sa tnong mo ay, WALA. He-he! ” He said laughing while handing me over my edited lesson plan. After that, he asked me good bye to attend their devotional prayer at the Elementary Library.
That ended my interview to him. July 25, 2012 Just after my interview. ( REFLECTION Seriously, I was left dumbfounded. I was surprised by how our conversation concluded. It’s just 30 minutes of interview but it changed a portion of me when it comes to the career I chose. I was able to reflect back on. How am I doing in the field? Am I after to the child’s personality? Attitude? Or am I just focus on the theoretical knowledge I learned on my three years study of theories? Am I forgetting something big? This whole observation and journal making thing turned out to me as an unexpected crash course. In taking this class, I would have never expected to be able to write so much at once.
In fact, in the past I probably would not have even tried. However, during the course of this class, I guess I began to open my mind to different ideas and styles of writing that have helped me to develop as a writer and as a student in general. My mind was put into critical thinking mode immediately after every class I attended in the Elementary department teaching grade six pupils. I knew from that point that this class would be a lot more than just a crash course on grammar and paper structure because I had to do this portfolio and journal. I had to form an opinion of my own.
As assertive as I come off, I always have a hard time, I still have a hard time choosing one side over another because I will sit there and analyze ever side to an issue. This innate habit of mine is both a gift and a curse. It is beneficial to me because I am able to look at things from several perspectives with compassion and understanding. But on the other hand, I always want to write a paper giving both my point of view towards something I personally experienced, instead of theoretical and argumentative statements which most of my subject courses requires me to do so.
This has been a challenge for me because we are asked over and over again to take a stand on an issue regarding what’s happening on our class during the discussions and our relationship with the entire faculty of the department. So many times this semester, I have been caught by writing center tutors, most especially my friends who are grammar Nazzis, telling me that this sentence or this paragraph supports the wrong side.
That is me trying to be fair I guess, a habit which I will have to keep learning how to break. I must say that I have enjoyed all of the facts and journals that we got to write about for the reason that I had quite a bit of interest in the subjects.
Even my journals and lesson plans which I was dreading to write became my favorite paper I wrote this semester because I was so informed after my research that I had so much to say. It is so much easier and interesting to write about things that affect me or things that I can relate to. For example my journal made me aware of the things that are going on that I seem to overlook in my everyday life. I think that more than anything this class has helped me to become a more analytical and insightful thinker as well as a critical writer and teacher.
Courtney from Study Moose
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