A congress and a parliament seem to be very similar things the legislative branches of the majority of the world’s democracies which are filled with popularly elected men and women who come together to decide the legislative issues of their home nation. However, despite the initial impression of sameness, the two are very different in two key areas: What is the constitution of them and what are their functions. This assay will discribe them setting examples of the United States and the United Kngdom. And through this assay, we will learn more about Parliament and Congress especially the US Parliament and British Congress.
Ⅰ. Similarities between Parliament and Congress
As Political systems of capitalist countries, both Parliament and Congress are the highest legislative branch of their country and exert the highest legislative authority. The legislative process of the US Parliament and British Congress both include three procedures: propose the bill, deliberate the bill and turn into law. In addition, both the US Parliament and British Congress exert supervisory authority. They control the politics and woks of their governments to ensure the governments can service themselves better and more effectively. Both the US Parliament and British Congress consist of two houses and most of members of the US Parliament and British Congress are produced by election. On the other hand, citizens in the country of parliament and congress elect commissaries to compose the representative bodies, participat in politics indirectly, discuss and decide on national affairs in order to reflect the exercise of state power and organizational forms of a democratic system.
Ⅱ. Differences between Parliament and Congress
A. The Constitution
1. The Constitution of the US Parliament Parliament consists of Members of Parliament. Members are often elected , in particular, a bicameral national MPs are elected by the General Assembly of the Republic and some by appointment or special status and access to qualified members. For the patriarchate of members, the House of Lords is longer than the House of Commons. With Speaker of Parliament, as the House shall preside, control the proceedings, the administrative charge and supervision of Parliament, representing the Council. Under the House Standing Committee, there are a variety of supporting agencies as to assist the House to review the motion. The bicameral Parliament also has a full-house committees and both houses of the Consultative Committee. In modern times, all capitalist countries have parliamentary assembly in order to facilitate the political parties to strengthen parliamentary control and influence.
2. The Constitution of British Congress
The highest legislative branch of United States consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Senator directly elected by the voters in the states, and each state has 2, implementating the principle of equal representation of states. The number of congressmen are distributed by state and by direct election, each state at least one. It is fixed number of 435 and senators must be at least 25 years old. Furthermore, members shall not serve other government functions.
B. Functions of the US Parliament and British Congress
1. Legislative Authority
As a rule, the procedure of a bill in United States is firstly proposed, then deliberated by the Committee, and finally considered by General Assembly. When one house gets across it, send it the other one, getting through the same procedures in turn. Bills passed by both houses will signed by the President. If the President does not veto, or he veto but re-enacted by two thirds of members of the two houses,the bill will become law. However, in United Kingdom, the legislative process includes three elements: prepare and submit the motion; consider and adopt the motion; approve the bill into law. The motion of Council consideration consists of three points: public motion, private motion and hybrid motion. Public motion could be submitted to both houses of any of the private motion and usually performed by an authorized agent of the party and hybrid motion will be delt with by a special committee. After all of these motions passing through all stages of the Houses of Parliament, then the king present to the approval of license certificate after being issued by the king, and then announced by the speaker of the houses.
2. Supervisory Authority
In the US, implementing agencies are responsible for enforcing the laws passed by Congress. In order to monitor the implementation of the implementing agencies, Congress adopt a series of actions to ensure implementation of laws adopted. Specifically, Congress’s oversight of the executive branch involved in the five aspects: First, the administrative implementation of the law; Second, the administrative situation of the use of congressional funds; Third, the political behavior of government officials; Fourth, the sets of the administrative branch; Fifth, decision-making process of the administrative branch. The history of the British Parliament cannot be detached from the struggle for controlling the financial power. Parliament supervisor the policies and work of government by controlling its financial power. Monitoring Committee focused primarily on tracking the appropriate government departments and policy, and the General Assembly through the Liaison Committee Xiangquan Yuan received the case report. In the Committee, it is the National Accounts Committee work most effectively. The source of the financial control can divided into two aspects: Monitor revenue and monitor expenditure.
To sum up, there are many similarities and differences between Parliament and Congress and we have learned some spesific information about the US Parliament and British Congress from this assay. However, it just discribes them in some of aspects. For example, I cannot find enough infornation about the similarities between Parliament and Congress so I cannot expatiate perfictlty and just discribe on the surface. Furthermore, I want to know more about the differences between Parliament and Congress but I did not find the information of election and many other things. Therefore, I hope I can learn more about these and have other opportunities to research them in near future.