Happiness, life satisfaction, and subjective well-being are closely connected to quality of life. Accordingly, quality of life is defined based on different approaches. It can depend if the approach is objective or subjective or if the approach is negative or positive. It can also be defined according to its use, either in academic writing or everyday life. Thus, quality of life has no exact or universal definition (Susniene & Jurkauskas, 2009).
Quality of Life (QoL) is usually referred to the definition of the World Health Organization (WHO) (1997) as the “individuals’ perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards, and concerns” and “a broad ranging concept extended in a complex way by the person’s physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and the relationship to salient features of their environment.
” The Dictionary of Human Geography 5th Edition (2009) defines that quality of life has the following dimensions: income, wealth and employment, built environment, physical and mental health, education, social disorganization, social belonging, and recreation and leisure. Quality of life is a broad multidimensional concept that also includes subjective evaluation and perception. It is defined in different ways in varying disciplines by individuals or groups. According to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2013), the quality of life in the Philippines ranked 114th out of the 187 countries in year 2012.
It is unchanged for two consecutive years from year 2011. The Philippines’ HDI was lower than Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore but higher than Indonesia and Vietnam. UNDP uses the Human Development Index (HDI) to measure quality of life with three dimensions specifically health, education, and income. Looking at where the Philippines ranked in comparison with the quality of life of other countries, it seems that the country is falling behind. It is quite interesting then to determine the QoL in the local perspective specifically in Batangas City.
Unexpectedly, Batangas City, which is where the study was conducted, commits itself in improving quality of life of its citizen, and it is stated in their mission: “To improve the quality of life of the citizen through sustained efforts to attain a balance agro-industrial development; to generate more employment opportunities and adequately provide the basic infrastructure utilities, facilities and social services necessary for a robust community. ” Thus, the mission reflects how the local government of Batangas City values the quality of life of their contemporaries.
This study can provide assessment of QoL in terms of the four indicators of the study and can project the effect of the government’s effort in uplifting the life of the people. In the researchers’ search for related literatures and studies, they have found out that this inquiry about Batanguenos’ quality of life is the first of its kind in the locality. The government does not have any available research studies in the past tackling about QoL or any direct means of measuring it. Hence, this undertaking is a stepping stone in closely monitoring improvement in the people’s way of life.
This study will benefit the local government, future researchers, academic institutions, and, above all, the residents of Batangas City. The researchers embarked in this study to provide a comparative assessment on the quality of life between rural and urban communities in Batangas City as well as to look at the perception of residents about satisfaction in life with regard to certain indicators. Since each individual innately pursue happiness and life satisfaction that constituted in obtaining QoL, the interest of the researchers were aroused.
The researchers aimed to provide a thorough examination on people’s QoL for both rural and urban communities on the basis of the four indicators of the study. Moreover, they also wanted to compare and contrast the QoL of respondents in terms of their profile to find association in it. Being the first study about quality of life in the province of Batangas and the latest assessment of living condition in the country for years, this study wished to contribute in enhancing the Filipino lives and to serve its purpose as an instrument in promoting good life for each and every citizen of the Philippines.
Statement of the Problem This study aimed to know the quality of life in rural and urban barangays of Batangas City to provide a comparative examination of life among people living in two different communities. More specifically, it sought to answer the following questions: 1. What is the profile of respondents in terms of: 1. 1 sex; 1. 2 age; 1. 3 civil status; 1. 4 educational attainment; and 1. 5 type of community? 2. How can quality of life of respondents be assessed in terms of: 2. 1 built environment; 2. 2 physical and mental health; 2. 3 social belonging; and 2. 4 recreation and leisure? 3.
Is there a significant relationship between the profile of respondents and their quality of life? 4. Is there a significant difference in the quality of life between rural and urban communities? 5. What activity can be proposed to promote the quality of life of Batangas City residents? Scope, Delimitation and Limitation of the Study This study focused on the comparative assessment of rural and urban quality of life in Batangas City. Specifically, the study was designed to measure QoL in terms of the four indicators of the study namely built environment, physical and mental health, social belonging, and recreation and leisure.
The study identified the association between the profile of respondents and their QoL. The profile variables included sex, age, civil status, educational attainment, and type of community. Moreover, this study would provide a comparative examination of QoL in rural and urban communities in Batangas City. Respondents of the study came from the first five locations in Batangas City determined in terms of population. The first five barangays with the highest population in rural and urban communities served as the research environment of the study.
Rural communities comprised of Balete, Tingga Labac, Tabangao Ambulong, San Jose Sico, and Sampaga while urban communities included Sta. Rita Karsada, Poblacion, Alangilan, Bolbok, and Cuta. The study was conducted from April 2013 to October 2013. This study did not seek to include other locations in Batangas City which were not mentioned above. This study did not cover the whole situation of the province of Batangas or other cities and municipalities therein in terms of quality of life. Factors such as income, wealth and employment, education, and social disorganization were not measured in this study.
Significance of the Study This comparative study on the quality of life of rural and urban communities aims to provide awareness on the QoL between rural and urban barangays in Batangas City. It also seeks to provide awareness on the present condition of the life of the people of Batangas to better understand the things that need to be improved and developed. This study will benefit researchers, students, the academe, and the community. This study would pave the way for the possibility of determining and closely investigating certain indicators of quality of life in both rural and urban communities.
It would also generate information on how the profile of respondents relates to QoL. More specifically, this study would be of significant use to the following: To the people of Batangas, this undertaking is a reflection of the most recent real life situation of the people of Batangas City that exposes the life they have today. This would help them better understand the living conditions they have and how to improve or enhance it. To local government officials and offices, this study would serve as a framework for their future projects and activities related to improving or enhancing quality of life.
To the City of Batangas, this study would provide a written reflection of the present condition of the city of Batangas and the mirrored situation of the past and present. It would benefit Batangas because this study would serve as the shadow of the life the people has today. Batangas State University, this study would be a proof that Borbonians have the capability of producing quality, relevant, and scientific research study. To the College of Arts and Sciences, this study would be another accomplishment of academic excellence and would serve as an evidence of the quality education that this university can offer.
This thesis would be an addition to the pool of knowledge generated in this institution. To Psychology students, this would serve as a basis for future researchers focused in the examination and analysis of life and ways to improve or enhance it. To future researchers, this study would serve as a reference for future studies about quality of life concerned with the following domains: built environment, physical and mental health, social belonging, and recreation and leisure.