Bipolar I Disorder is defined by the DSM-5 as manic or mixed episodes that last at least seven days, or by manic symptoms that are so severe that the person needs immediate hospital care. During this manic episode, people typically experience an expansive mood, excessive optimism, grandiosity, and poor judgment. Usually, the person also has depressive episodes, typically lasting at least two weeks. During the depressive episode, people may become hostile and physically threatening to other and also, when delusional, may be physically assaultive or suicidal. The symptoms of mania or depression must be a major change from the person’s normal behavior. Hypomanic episodes also exist in which a person experiences at least 4 consecutive days of increased energy and activity and elevated mood.
Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia) 300.23 (F40.10)
The diagnostic criteria for Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) includes an anxiety associated with social situations in which a person feels pressure or scrutiny by others. Such social situations almost always provoke fear in the individual typically lasting for 6 months of more. There is a specific branch of this disorder in which the individual only fears public performance: such as singing, communicating a speech, an athletic event, and often affects work and school activities. Typically those individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder have a fear or anxiety that is judged to be out of proportion to the actual risk of being negatively evaluated or to the consequences of such negative evaluation.
Nightmare Disorder307.47 (F51.5)
Nightmare Disorder is a repeated occurrence of dysphoric and well-remembered dreams that involve threats to survival and personal security. Typically, the dream occurs in the second half of the major sleep episode. Other criteria involves the individual experiencing distress affecting social interactions at work or other important areas of function. These nightmares are not caused by the substance consumption of alcohol, drugs, or medication. The DSM-5 defines a nightmare as a long and detailed, story-like sequence of dream imagery that appears real and causes anxiety, stress, or fear. In several instances, nightmares may be comorbid with several medical conditions, including coronary heart disease, cancer, Parkinsonism, and pain, and can accompany medical treatments.
Paranoid Personality Disorder301.0 (F60.0)
Paranoid Personality Disorder falls under the broad category of personality disorders. The criterion for paranoid personality disorder includes a pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent. Typically the individual suspects without evidence that other people are out to harm or exploit him or her, determines that friends and associates are not to be trusted, is reluctant to confide in others because of unwarranted fears, reads into hidden meanings about people or events, has unforgiving attitude and grudges towards people, counterattacks angrily when feeling that character or reputation is being attacked, and has recurrent suspicions without justification regarding fidelity of spouse or sexual partner. The pattern of this disorder is obviously one of distrust and suspiciousness. Generally these individuals are difficult to get along with and often do not participate in close relationships with others.
Pedophilic Disorder302.2 (F65.4)
Pedophilic Disorder is defined when an individual has recurrent, intense sexual arousing fantasies, urges, or behavior with a child 13 years or younger over a period of 6 months. Either the individual has acted on the urges or these urges have caused serious distress and interpersonal difficulty. The individual must be at least 16 years old and at least 5 years older than the child or children. If individuals complain that their sexual attractions or preferences for children are causing psychosocial difficulties, they may be diagnosed with pedophilic disorder. The presence of multiple victims is sufficient but not necessary for diagnosis of pedophilia. Pedophilia per se appears to be a lifelong condition. Pedophilic disorder contains elements that may change over time with or without treatment: subjective distress, psychosocial impairment, or the decision to act upon desires.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
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