Different meaning could be attached to the word quality under different circumstances. The word quality does not mean the quality of manufactured product only. It may refer to the quality of the process (i.e., men, material, and machines) and even that of management. Where the quality manufactured product referred as or defined as “Quality of product as the degree in which it fulfills the requirement of the customer. It is not absolute but it judged or realized by comparing it with some standards”.
Quality begins with the design of a product in accordance with the customer specification further it involved the established measurement standards, the use of proper material, selection of suitable manufacturing process etc., quality is a relative term and it is generally used with reference to the end use of the product. Crosby defined as “Quality is conformance to requirement or specifications”. Juran defined as “Quality is fitness for use”. “The Quality of a product or service is the fitness of that product or service for meeting or exceeding its intended use as required by the customer.” Fundamental Factors Affecting Quality
The nine fundamental factors (9 M’s), which are affecting the quality of products and services, are: markets, money, management, men, motivation, materials, machines and mechanization. Modern information methods and mounting product requirements.
1.Market: Because of technology advancement, we could see many new products to satisfy customer wants. At the same time, the customer wants are also changing dynamically. So, it is the role of companies to identify needs and then meet it with existing technologies or by developing new technologies.
2.Money: The increased global competition necessitates huge outlays for new equipments and process. This should be rewarded by improved productivity. This is possible by minimizing quality costs associated with the maintenance and improvements of quality level.
3.Management: Because of the increased complex structure of business organization, the quality related responsibilities lie with persons at different levels in the organization.
4.Men: The rapid growth in technical knowledge leads to development of human resource with different specialization. This necessitates some groups like, system engineering group to integrate the idea of full specialization.
5.Motivation: If we fix the responsibility of achieving quality with each individual in the organization with proper motivation techniques, there will not be any problem in producing the designed quality products.
6.Materials: Selection of proper materials to meet the desired tolerance limit is also an important consideration. Quality attributes like, surface finish, strength, diameter etc., can be obtained by proper selection of material.
7.Machines and mechanization: In order to have quality products which will lead to higher productivity of any organization, we need to use advanced machines and mechanize various operations.
8.Modern information methods: The modern information methods help in storing and retrieving needed data for manufacturing, marketing and servicing.
9.Mounting product requirements: Product diversification to meet customers taste leads to intricacy in design, manufacturing and quality standards. Hence, companies should plan adequate system to tackle all these requirements.
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