Organizational structure is a system used to define a hierarchy within an organization. It identifies each job, its function and where it reports to within the organization. (Lucy Friend, 2009)
There are several organizational structures; however, the type of structure in an organization depends on aim, size of the business, and industry. Carefully chosen structures will improve the communication throughout the organization.
Types of Organizational Structures
Employees within the functional divisions of an organization tend to perform a specialized set of tasks, for instance the engineering department would be staffed only with software engineers. (Sutton, 2012)
Matrix Structure is an organizational structure in which workers have to report to more than one party, as having two or three supervisors at the same time. For example, the workers working at factories have to report to different managers including production managers and marketing managers and sometimes to project managers if a separate project is going on.
The divisional structure groups each organizational function into divisions. Each division within a divisional structure contains all the necessary resources and functions within it.
Organizational culture is an idea in the field of Organizational studies and management, which describes the psychology, attitudes, experiences, beliefs, and values of an organization. It can be defined as the specific collection of values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization and that control the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organization. This definition continues to explain organizational values also known as “beliefs and ideas about what kinds of goals members of an organization should pursue and ideas about the appropriate kinds or standards of behaviour organizational members should use to achieve these goals. (Cheng, 1995).
Types of organizational culture:
In the organizations, where power culture is used the authorization to make decisions are only given to few employees. Those employees are the ones who enjoy the benefits at the workplace also have to delegate their power to the other employees. In such organizations, employees have no other option but to follow the managers or supervisors instructions. Furthermore, employees cannot give their view and ideas and this leads to de-motivated labours and finally labours turn over in the organization increases. (Mullins, 2005)
This is a culture where every staff is assign with roles and responsibilities according to the specialized area, qualification, and interest of the employee in order to get the best out of the employee. This helps the organization to improve their productivity, as employees are good at their job. Today role culture is very common in organizations and it is very suitable for large organizations. (Mullins, 2005)
In Task Culture Organization forms a group in order to achieve the targets or to solve a specific problem. The organization that practices this culture put together four to five employees in a group who are specialized in similar areas also sharing similar interests. The common goal of each member is to contribute as many ideas as possible to complete the task in an effective way. For example, a company can use team culture in a period where the company is losing market share to identify the reasons behind and to improve whatever is wrong.
1.2 Explain how the relationship between organisation’s structure and culture can impact on the performance of the business
The organizational structure and the organizational culture have the relationship to each other and they are the backbone of the organization. The both organization can affect progress of the organization. It can bring the stability and social system in the organization. . In organization having culture and structure strange there will be working environment also provides appropriate standards of working environment. The organization has different policies rules and regulations that how to communicate with the employee.
The organization also shows about the responsibilities that who will report to whom mean who will be responsible to whom majority in this kind of organization tasks a good decision foe the company. Culture and structure has also some drawbacks on the business progress. If the organization culture is too much complex then in the organization decision will be very slow and also there will be centralized decision making in which the lower level employee’s will not be entertained.
Organizational framework and way of lifestyle can impact progress of organization in the precious and in the adverse way. In the precious way it distinguish the organization to the one, which don’t have a way of lifestyle and framework. It explains the restriction of the firm (Bond et al. 1996). It provides a feeling of certificate among the employees to know each other for the success and success of goals. It can carry balance and team system in the organization. In any organization having way of lifestyle and framework unusual there will be workplace also provides appropriate requirements of workplace.
1.3 Discuss the factors which Influence individual behaviour at work
Individual behaviour explain why a person behaves and reacts in response to different situation therefore in order to get a better understanding about the behaviour, organizations have to be well aware of the main factors which affects individual behaviour at work. (Balmer, Baum, 1993) There are many terms and factors, which influence the behaviour. They are demographic factors, Perception, Abilities and skills, Attitude, and Personality.
Demographic factors are a population of the quantifiable statistics. Demographics are also used to identify the study of quantifiable subsets within a given population, which characterize that population at a specific point in time. It is mostly used in public opinion polling and the marketing. It includes the gender, age, and ethnicity, knowledge of the languages, disabilities, mobility, home ownership employment status, and even the location.
The perception is the cognitive process that is meant for the interpreting the environmental stimuli in a different ways. A lot of the factors influence the perception of the individual behaviours. The manager plays the important roles in the study of the perception. It is very essential for the managers to make the favourable environment so that employees perceive them in the favourable ways.
Abilities and skills
Ability and the skills were highly influenced by the individual’s behaviours and the performance. The ability is the capacity of an individual to do something and the skills is defined as the ability to act in a way that allows a person to perform well. The individual can perform well in the organization if his abilities and the skills are bringing together in his job description.
The attitudes can be defined as a tendency to respond the favourably or unfavourably to the certain objects, persons or situations. The formation of attitude is influenced by factors such as family, culture, society, peers and organizational factors. The organization need to study the variables information that is related to their jobs so they can create the work environment in a favourable way so the employees give their best efforts to perform best in the organization. Attitudes are either positive or negative. The employees can perform best in the organization if they form a positive attitude. (Mullins, 2001)
The personality is the study of the characteristics and distinctive traits of an individuals and the inter-reaction between them and the way in which a person responds and adjusts to other people situations. The heredity, family, society, culture and the situation are influenced by the personality.