Electrical phenomena have been studied since antiquity, though progress in theoretical understanding remained slow until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Even then, practical applications for electricity were few, and it would not be until the late nineteenth century that engineers were able to put it to industrial and residential use (Jones, 1991). The foundation of modern electrical science was definitely established in the Elizabethan Age (http://inventors.about.com/cs/inventorsalphabet/a/electricity.htm). Scientists often depict it as the golden age in English history. During this age, the start of the advance in electricity was made possible by William Gilbert. His book entitled “Magneticisique Corporibus” (On the Magnet), influenced and inspired inventors and scientists and was passed from generation to generation. Today, electricity is an essential part of our daily lives. We use electricity every day, in objects all around us.
With the advances in technology and the increase in population, electricity is really in demand. To meet these demands, power plants make electricity out of other forms of energy. Most electricity in the U.S. today comes from converting the heat energy released from burning fossil fuels- coal, natural gas and oil. The rest is generated from nuclear reactors and from renewable resources, such as sunlight, wind, falling water and geothermal heat. In a typical power plant, a primary energy source like coal is burned to create heat, which is converted in a boiler to mechanical energy in the form of superheated, high-pressure steam. The steam is directed into a turbine, where it pushes on blades attached to a central shaft or rotor. The rapidly spinning rotor powers a generator. Renewable sources of energy- sunlight, wind, falling water and geothermal heat- can decrease cost significantly but also, might be harmful to the environment and to our health. Mining silicon to make silicon-based solar panels for example is an expensive process that emits a lot of carbon dioxide. Solar panels emit 100-300g of CO2/kWh. Aside from this, most chemicals used in making solar panels are toxic. Examples are Crystalline silicon (c-Si), Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin film, Copper indium selenide (CIS) and Copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS).
Many activists agreed that the use of renewable sources of electricity were not that good for the environment but was still better than older polluting technologies but, this does not stop us in finding a better source of electricity that can preserve the environment and maintain a healthy body. Galvanic cells are another way to produce electricity by chemical means. They harness the electrical energy available from the electron transfer in a redox reaction to perform useful electrical work. A typical cell might consist of two pieces of metal, one zinc and the other copper, each is dissolved in a solution containing a dissolved salt of the corresponding metal. In a Galvanic cell, there are two endpoints or terminals of a device that produces electrical current and these are the anode and the cathodes. Electrical current runs from the positively charged terminal to the negatively charged terminal. The cathode is the terminal that attracts cations, or positive ions. To attract the cations, the terminals must be negatively charged. Electrical current is the amount of charge that passes a fixed point per unit time.
The direction of the current flow is the direction a positive charge would go. Electrons are negative, and will move in the opposite direction of current. Electrolytes are a compound that ionizes when dissolved in suitable ionizing solvents such as water. This includes most soluble salts, acids, and bases. Some gases such as hydrogen chloride, under conditions of high temperature or low pressure can also function as electrolytes. Electrolytes are also important for our body to function properly (Dugdale III, 2011). It affects the amount of water in your body, the acidity of your blood (pH), your muscle function, and other important processes. You lose electrolytes when you sweat. You must replace them by drinking fluids.
Common electrolytes include Calcium, Chloride, Magnesium, Phosphorous, Potassium and Sodium. Malunggay (Moringa Oleifera) also known as kamunngay or moringa is a multipurpose plant, as the leaves, pods, fruits, flowers, roots and barks of the tree can be utilized (http://www.edlagman.com/moringa/moringa-health-benefits.htm). Scientific research confirms that these humble leaves are a powerhouse of nutritional value. Gram of gram, malunggay leaves contain: seven times the Vitamin C in oranges, four times the Calcium in milk, four times the Vitamin A in carrots, two times the protein in milk, and three times the Potassium in bananas. There are some studies about malunggay’s potential as an alternative source of electricity such as Biofuel but the researcher has not found any study of its potential as an alternative source of electricity used as the electrolyte in a Galvanic cell.
Statement of the Problem
The aim of the study is to test the electrolytes in Malunggay (Moringa Oleifera) leaf extract for its potential as an alternative source of electricity. Specifically, it aimed to answer the following questions: 1. Can the 50% and 100% solution of the malunggay leaf extract produce at least 1.5V of electricity? 2. Was there a significant difference in terms of the voltage, current and power produced between the two solutions? 3. Does malunggay has a potential of being an alternative source of electricity?
Theoretical/ Conceptual Framework
Figure 1.1 Paradigm of the Control Set-up, Dependent and Independent Variable on the Potential of Malunggay as an Alternative Source of Electricity.
The following were the assumptions used as the bases of the study: 1. That all groups received equal amount of moisture, temperature, sunlight and humidity throughout the experiment as they may affect each group’s capabilities. 2. That the preparations of the solutions were accurately done.
The following were the null hypotheses that will be accepted or rejected according to the results: 1. There is no significant difference in terms of the voltage, current and power produced between the two solutions. 2. Malunggay has no potential of being an alternative source of electricity.
Significance of the Study
This study was aimed to determine the potential of malunggay as an alternative source of electricity. It is also clearly stated that electricity is not cheap and, renewable and non-renewable sources of electricity might perish and/or might affect our health and the environment. This study will also provide new ideas and knowledge about electrolytes and the capacity of fruits and vegetables to generate electricity. This study might not only save our money but this might also save our earth and also help in the reduction of the emission of toxic materials in to the environment.
Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study will be conducted at the researcher’s residence in M. Parras ext., Tagbilaran City, Bohol for 7 days. The leaves of the malunggay that will be utilized and the tools and materials that will be used will be gathered from Tagbilaran City, Bohol.
Definition of Key Terms
Electrolytes. It refers to a substance that when dissolved in a suitable solvent or when fused becomes an ionic conductor. Electrodes. It refers to the conductors that are used to establish electrical contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit. Glavanic cell. It refers to a cell where chemical reactions between dissimilar conductors through an electrolyte and a salt bridge produce electric energy. Anode. It is the negative terminal of a galvanic cell. It is the electrode of an electrochemical cell at which oxidation occurs.
Cathode. It is the positive terminal of a galvanic cell. It is the electrode of an electrochemical cell at which reduction occurs. Anions. The ion in an electrolyzed solution that migrates to the anode. Cations. The ion in an electrolyzed solution that migrates to the cathode. Concentration. The amount of a component in a given area or volume. Moringa oleifera. It refers to a plant commonly known as moringa in English and malunggay or kamunggay in Filipino. It is also called as “Miracle Plant” because of its nutritional value.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Moringa. Moringa oleifera is the most widely cultivated species of a monogeneric family, the Moringaceae, that is native to sub-Himalayan tracts of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan (Fahey, 2005). This rapidly-growing tree (also known as the horseradish tree, drumstick tree, benzolive tree, kelor, marango, mlonge, moonga, malunggay, ne’be’day, saijhan,sajna or Ben oil Tree),was utilized by ancient Romans, Greeks and Egyptians; it is now widely cultivated and has become naturalized in many locations in the tropics. It is a perennial softwood tree with timber of low quality, but which for centuries has been advocated for traditional medicinal and industrial uses. It is already an important crop in India, Ethiopia, the Philippines and Sudan, and is being grown in West, East and South Africa, tropical Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean, Florida and the Pacific Islands. All parts of the moringa tree are edible and have long been consumed by humans.
According to Fuglie (1999), the many uses for moringa include: alley cropping (biomass production), animal forage (leaves and treated seed-cake), biogas (from leaves), domestic cleaning agent (crushed leaves), blue dye (wood), fencing (living trees), fertilizer (seed-cake), foliar nutrient (juice expressed from the leaves), green manure (from leaves), gum (from tree trunks), honey- and sugar cane juice- clarifier (powdered seeds), honey (flower nectar), medicine (all plant parts), ornamental paintings, biopesticide (soil incorporation of leaves to prevent seedling damping off), pulp (wood), robe (bark), tannin for tannin hides (bark and gum), water purification (powdered seeds). This tree has in recent times been advocated as an outstanding indigenous source of highly digestible protein, Ca, Fe, Vitamin C, and carotenoids suitable for utilization in many of the so-called “developing” regions of the world where undernourishment is a major concern. Moringa trees have been used to combat malnutrition, especially among infants and nursing mothers.
Three non-governmental organizations in particular- Trees for life, Church World Service and Educational Concerns for Hunger Organization- have advocated moringa as “Leaves can be eaten fresh, cooked, or stored as dried powder for many months without refrigeration, and reportedly without loss of nutritional value. Moringa is especially promising as a food source in the tropics because the tree is in full leaf at the end of the dry season when other foods are typically scarce.
The specific components of moringa preparations that have been reported to have hypotensive, anticancer, and antibacterial activity include benzyl isothiocyanate, niazimicin, pterygospermin, benzyl glucosinolate. Galvanic cell. Galvanic cells allow us to harness the electron flow in a redox reaction to perform useful work. Such cells find common use as batteries, pH meters, and as fuel cells. The set-up of the cell, as seen in, requires that the oxidation and reduction half-reactions are connected by a wire and by a salt bridge or porous disk allows the passage of ions in solution to maintain charge neutrality in each half cell. Electrolytes.