1. Outlie the difference between sequence and rate of develoment. Why might children develop at different rates in different areas?
All children are different in sequence of development depending on events of what will happen while growing in age, as like Maslows hierarchy of needs are shown you need all acpects to develop, you need (qouting from Maslows hierarchy of needs) basic needs such as physiological needs (Health,food,sleep), safety needs (shelter, removel, belonging and love needs (love, affection, being a part of groups), esteam needs (self-esteem and esteem from others) to finally you will reach the top to self-actualisation needs (Achieving individual potentail) so for a child to develop they must complete one of the area’s before they move on to the next one.
each and every child will develop at a different rate for example Some babies start teething from 6 months and some of them start even at 9 months, some babies can start talking at around about 1 Yrs but in some case’s at the age of 1 yrs some babies will still only babble and point at what they want but it will depend on the individual. milestones of development are given as a broad avarage of which they expect a child to reach but not all children are the same and will develop at their own pace. There are also other different areas of development from physical, social, intellectual and language no matter what the age of the child.. If at all one is skipped or is slow it can be a cause for concern and may lead to a child being given a special recommendation.
2. Discuss two personal factors and external factors that could influence a child or persons development
These are some factors for personal and external factors
Personal factors of a childs of development
mother who uses drugs, drinks and smokes
what happens during pregnancy
Being born premature
External factors of a child of development
Housing and education.
Play and leisure activities.
Culture and language.
Aspirations and expectations.
Family environment and background.
Looked after children. (i.e. Foster care, child minder, looked after by relatives)
All these influences affect a child in different ways. children with difficulties and health problems don’t like or are less able to participate in some activities and this will affect physical development and will restrict children to not socialize with the other children and there peers. If a pupil has any of the personal factors staff from there school will be aware of what a pupil may need to support them through school and include them in as much activities as they can do. if a child has learning difficulties they will be encouraged to develop in all areas and will need guidance to manage there needs.
Pupils will come from a rage of different family environments and go through lots of different changes while at school like family break up, one parent might have a new partner, illness, mooving house or maybe they are in care which will may change a pupils behaviour and this may affect there time at school and ablity to learn. also Statistics show that children from a deprived backgrounds are less likelyto achieve at school beause there own parents can not meet their needs and this would impact on all areas of development.
3. Explain how theories of development and framework to support development influence current practice
There are a range of diffrenent theories of develoment and many psychologists have different ideas on how children learn, some fill that children ability is innate and some say it will depend on the oppertunites that they are given in there life.
Piaget’s constructivist theories which look at the way in which children seem to be able to make sense of their world as a result of their experiences and how they are active learners. He also suggested that as children develop so does their thinking. in other word’s children are learning though play.
According to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality, there are three elements of personality–the id, the ego and the superego. According to Freud, the key to a healthy personality is a balance between the three elements
The id is the only component of personality that is present from birth, The id is very important early in life, because it ensures that an infant’s needs are met. If a infant is hungry or uncomfortable, he or she will cry until the demands of the id are met.
The ego is the component of personality, a child realises that how they behave may affect how it’s needs are met, he or she will not cry if they are hungery they would just wait untill food comes to them.
superego develops later in childs life, it is based on there development of the conscience. alternatively if the ego behaves well the superego will have pride
The behaviourist approach to learning suggests that behaviour is learned from environmental factors, rewards and punishments. Watson believed that everyone is born with the same abilities and everyone and anyone can be taught anything.
Maslow was originally was interested in behaviourism and he studied the work of Watson, he also looked at other psychologists like freud’s beliefs but Maslow wanted to understand what motivates people. He believed that our own nees were more important and the Hierarchy of Needs theory remains valid today.
if you have a look at some of these theories they explain why everyone is capable of achieving the roles they set themselves. Some also help us to understand the driving forces behind our decisions, and that we are governed by inner factors.
4. Outline three different methods of monitoring development.
There are many different methods of monitoing development. These are a few;
information from carers and colleagues
There are two types of obsevations informal and formal.
informal observations are carried out on a daily basis when working with a pupil and overtime a picture can be built of the pupil’s progress and if there are any poblems such as not undetstanding how to use a ruler propley or not holding a pencil corectly. Any observations are fed back to the teacher daily, however they may not always be recorded and information gathered may not be passed onto others. formal observations, his may be carried out to support the teacher on assessing a pupil’s level of development such as a controlled assessment or a speaking and listening test.
This is usually carried out by medical practitioners to ensure that a child is growing at the expected rate for their age.
Information from carers and collegues
Information from carers can be vital if there is a factor that may be influencing the development of a young person an example may be that the pupil is being bullied or they don’t understand the learning objective but are too scared to ask for help. As a colleague if you see a change in the child you must communicate this to the class teacher to help them to assess what assistance may be required. Parents and teachers should share information about pupils to enable them to work together for the childs best intreast.
5.Explain the reasons why children and young peoples’s developmemnt may not follow the expected pattern?
There are lots of different reasons why children may not follow the expected pattern. a child may not follow the expected pattern if they have emotional problems, they my feel unsettled for a number of reasons one of which maybe children who may live with there parents that constonaly argue and fight and this will make the child fill withdrawn or could cause stress and make behavoul problems. a child may be at a disadvantage environmentally due to poor housing or area in which they live.
If a chid lives in a house that is poory heated, this could mean a child will exprience bad health and this could also cause stress to parents and this could cause a child to develop more later then other children. Some children may have a poor diet, this affects there physical development, There have been many studies on diet and its effects and results have shown that a child who has a nutritious and healthy diet achieves more in life. If a family are on a low income and cannot give a child a healty diet this could have a child show physical issues.
6. Descibe how disability can affect development.
Childen with disabilities will be affected in a number of different ways, depending on on the the pupil needs and disabilities. it may cause a delay in a particular aspect of there develpment. example –
Autism is a developmental disability which affects how a person relates and communicates with other people and the world around them. A child with autism will find it difficult to understand facial expressions or the tone of a voice. and it could affect their ability to development or interact in social settings or in the classroom setting.
Children with learning difficulties find’s difficult to read and may be come frustrated and problems could arise with there behaiour
This may affect there social skills where a child will become withdrawn or affect there behaviour if they become frustrated and will become very withdrawn. A child with this disability may only be affected physically with this disability while others could be affected by seizures, epilepsy or difficulties with speech and language.
When you are working with children with special educational needs (SEN) it is important that you focus on the pupils disability and needs and some of the children, not all, work will need to be modified and the pupil will need to be supported but not all children with disabilities require extra help and could go on to do GCSE’s and further there education in college and all they will need is a bit of encourgement.
7. identify four different types of professional intervention that could assist a child or young person whose development was not following the expected pattern
There are many different types of professional intervention groups that will support pupils who are not progressing at th same rate as others. This is likely to be advised by either SENCO or another professional who links with schools. The four that i will be focusing on will be a social worker, speech and language therapist, physiotherapist and nurse/ health visitor.
A social worker might be involved if there is a cause fo concern or if a parent has asked for help. in a school setting if the school in concerned for a childs well being they will also contact social services diectly.
speech and language therapist
Speech and language theraist can be based in a school setting or external. They will give the diagnosis of a communication delay or a disorder and will also advise and work with the parents and the school to support the child in the best way they can, with a non verbal child they will use activities and PECS thet will give a child the confidance to comunicate.
this professional help children with their movement especially those who have little or no movement they are trained to get the maximum movement and skill level. They will also give targets and execerise to pupils to work on to development their gross motor skills.
Nurse and heath visitors provides support for the family and child especially if that child suffers from medical conditions that need specialist care Also health visitors come under this title for measuring and assessing a child’s development.
8. Analyse the importance of early identification of speech, language and communication delays and disorders, and the potential risks of late recognition
It very important to find the early identification of speech, language and communication delays or disorders and the potential risk of late recognitio because it is the crucial part of a childs learning. Because early identification means the child can receive the right treatment and support from professionals and others to target the childs needs hopefully correct the problem that the child has. greatly increasing the chances of improving their skills and helping to get their development back on track as quickly as possible. It is more better for a childs disorder or delays to be dinosoned at an early age so they have a better chance as the early years are a time rapid of learning and development. It can also cause learning delays, particularly in literacy, having problems with sounds and letters leading to delays in reading and spelling.
late identification of speech, language and communication can effect their confidence and self-esteem and could find it harder to form relationships, can lead to problems with understanding or a child being able to express their own feelings, leaving them feeling angry or frustrated and causing them to act out and maybe develop behavior problems and isolated. very young children will not be able to recognise the reason for the way they are feeling. if a child that you work with has a communication delay or disorder, you should be sent to get the right trainning to help the child along through the time that you will work with them and also if you work in a school setting there will be speech and lanuage specialist that will came and work with the child as well as you.
9. Explain how play and activities are used to suppot the development of speech, language and communication.
10. Discuss three different types of transition, how they affect a childs or a young person’s development
Transitions in life are a fundamental part of development in children and young people. From an early age a child will experience some form of transition and how well they deal with these changes as they are growing up will be depend on their stage of development. when it comes to the time of transition childen should be able to talk about what is going to happen and be prepared. transition vary from child to child, so it is important to consider them on an individual basis.
types of transitions may be:
emotional – bereavement, entering/leaving care or the divorce or separation of parents physical – moving into another school setting, a new home.
physiological – puberty, long term medical conditions
intellectual – moving from nusery to primary school
Pupils emotionals will be affected by their personal experince in there life. If there is a major change within the family unit such as parents separating or divorcing, it can have such an impact on the parents that the children’s emotions may be forgotten and there emotional development may well be affected, they may start to misbehave at home and or at school.
Pupils who are moveing to a new home may find physical transition trumatic and unsettling and could afftect there development or if a child moves to a new classroom within the same school setting could find the transition positive and the effects wont be as tumatic as they won’t be making the changes alone, they will be with their friends.
Change such as having to deal with leaving nursery to primary school or from leaving primary school to secoundary and so on, if a this transition is not correctly handled can have a negative impact on development. It will be in the best intreast of a child to visit each setting before they make the transaction.
11. Evaluate the effect on children and young people of having positive relationships duing periods of transitions.