As a service worker there are a number of identified demands that the client is proposing or the family of the client which is dealing with East London care home. Mr. Park was analysed and related to his disabilities, various suitable concepts of health were introduced within his treatment. There are many socioeconomic levels of people living in the same community. A group may be more advantageous than the other. Income, area of residence, gender, ethnicity, occupation, and education are some of the factors which manipulate personal health maintenance (Graham, 2004, p. 4-9). A person’s education occupation and income are inter-related and manoeuvre his or her lifestyle and health status. The UK government takes healthcare policies very seriously and is working hard to eliminate discrepancies from its system. The variety of factors that lead to inequalities is a limitation for policy developers but the government has unlimited access to all the relevant data.
The state holds the best position to report healthcare system inadequacy. Social policies are directing towards to reforms as legislations should be further introduced so that cases like Mr. Holland may not face the lack in assessment during the search for a care home in the United Kingdom. Variation in opportunities available to people, lead to inequality in healthcare provision. This disparity can be observed throughout the life of individuals. There is a study suggesting that difficulties in the initial period of life lead to healthcare issues in adult life (Power et al, 2007, p. 532-9). Adults with impecunious resources find difficulty in managing their job with a concurrent malady and associated discrimination. These people are vulnerable to abuse and addiction due to their social environment.
Their dietary habits also contribute to their overall hygiene; malnourished people are more prone to catching diseases than well-nourished people. The gradient in health status of people with varying social and economical backgrounds is also evident in average life span of both groups (Atherton et al, 2007, p. 486-91). People with limited or no education is engaged in hazardous occupations with chances of physical harm. Unemployed folks are dependent on their benefactor or state for fulfilment of their fitness needs. The difference in health perception is also a contributing factor to healthcare inequalities. Most of the citizens do not seek medical help until they are sick. Immigrants from under-developed countries of the world are customized to their less-privileged conditions back home. The behaviour of these migrants adds to healthcare inequalities existent in Britain.
They are not aware of their health rights in United Kingdom and fail to grasp the value of their health as a contribution to society. Women’ health conditions especially of those in child-bearing age highlight the contrast in healthcare provision to society. Health care and social settings cater and server society in numerous possible ways. For the utmost productivity and results, health care systems have to collaborate with other sectors and fields. One of the most important sector with which the health systems have to work in collaboration with, is the social care sector. Social care might entail processes and procedures that enhance their effectiveness by collaborating and working in partnerships. This report represents the cultural awareness that is required within this particular case, services should be available that is highlighted within the report.
The theories and concepts regarding the partnerships in health and social care, concern cooperation between forces on three levels; the ones on the administrative levels, on the levels of users of service and the collaboration between organizational partners. Inter-professional collaboration constitutes a key factor in procedures and methods that increase the efficiency and impact of the health care services for the public. Collaboration constitutes of working with a team; and that too, with a single unified goal or a set of goals. The organizations working in partnerships with each other are mostly in a mutually benefiting relationship. They perform and carry out functions that are agreed upon and are aligned toward the goal which the partners are striving for. The next feature of the underlying concepts of partnerships and collaboration is the quality and aspect of partnership.
Sharing entails more of an emotional touch and constitutes of performing functions that are mutually benefiting and provide advantages to both the parties. Partnership however, entails the agreements and accords of sharing and dividing the benefits, whether they are financial or any other. Partnerships also entails that the partners appear and approach the other organizations under the one name. It is more of a relationship in contractual terms. Although mutually benefiting, the relation between the partners is not effective and strong if the power is held by one partner and not shared equally with the other partner. Power might be in form of the decisive power or the power in managing the finances. The health care systems when collaborating with the social care systems have to distribute the power; the partnership entails that the partners have equal power for the various functions of performing in the health care sector.
Consequent to the power and autonomy partners should have in a collaborative relationship, interdependency still remains to be the most important factor and concept of partnership. A partnership or collaborative relation between the health care system and social care will fail and affect the lives of public immensely, if the partners are overly powerful and autonomous. As in every working relationship, on the people level as well, interdependency accounts for one of the major factor. This concept of partnership directly relates to the striving and struggle for single goal in partnership.
The care home would provide various facilities that would help Mr. Holland a better life there. Extra care include the process that is discussed under this section of the paper. It is now well established that social and economic factors affect availing of healthcare facility at all levels. There may be a variety of reasons for this differential behaviour in society. These causes can broadly be classified as “financial, structural, and cognitive” (Carrillo et al, 2011, p. 562-75). These barriers in contacting a healthcare provider often lead to failure in diagnosis at the right time, appropriate care for the ailment, and overall lack of a treatment approach. All of these eventually cause a decline in an attempt to provide equal healthcare to all. A number of people do not contact healthcare professionals because of inadequate financial resources. There may be two reasons for this inadequacy; not having an insurance policy for medical coverage, or belonging to a low income social group.
These people fear getting into circumstance that may lead to losing money. This reluctance causes them to react in a careless way to their medical needs. People who are insured with health policies may also cower from reaching out to a caregiver for medical aid. This problem arises from complex interrogative procedures, followed by insurance companies. People do not want to get into trouble for a small ailment and ignore to seek medical advice. Another reason for not going to a medical care provider is; having to wait long hours to see a doctor. People may have limitations such as not having someone to look for their child for long durations, not getting time-off from the employer for their medical appointment, or having a load of social obligations. People with a disability may also face communication problem during their meeting with a health professional.
Lack of information about health predicaments, accessible amenities, and importance of staying in sound health, also contribute to overlooking self care. Sometimes a patient fails to understand the implication of their diagnosed condition and does not pursue quality treatment. Discriminatory behaviour of a caregiver is also a likely cause of health illiteracy. However, individual behaviour of people also leads to health and social care development. For instance, in Asian families, it is highly unethical to treat their elderly people in the old homes. They believe it is their moral and religious responsibility to take care of their elderly people at home. So they prefer care in home setting. Now, the nursing and its priorities have changed in homecare settings. It has become advanced adopting more humanistic approaches in the provision of primary care.
However, for the Americans and Europeans, these old homes are a facility where elderly people live and receive best health facilities. For this reason, governments spend huge amount on building and setting old homes. People now want to have quick answers to their queries regarding medical facilities and healthcare. The use of social media by health institute facilitates them in solving their problems. The increasing role of social media and advanced technology is the result of people’s attitude and behaviour. Validity and reliability of the information depends upon the source. There are two types of sources for collecting information-primary and secondary. Primary source is believed to be original, first hand, and unedited.
On the other hand, secondary is interpreted and processed material. The distinction between the reliable and unreliable source is hard to explain in this age of mass media. The health care institutes must develop standards based on international practices and evidences and need to be regulated by the concerned Authority. Dissemination of health and social care information must be handled by responsible authority that has the proven record of credibility and authenticity. Quality information is a significant aspect for service providers that can also help them in planning, managing, monitoring, and delivering high quality health care provision.
Through out the process of stay of Mr. Holland there are significant changes observed and as an auditor, I and the institution have found out that certain approaches that are used to take his care are producing fruitful results. Health promotions address both primary and secondary causes of a healthcare problem. These campaigns are relevant for creating awareness in the general public and minimizing the spread of problems. Whenever a healthcare emergency arises, healthcare providers are responsible for initial interventions. After the initial intercession, the healthcare professional evaluates the crisis and presents his or her idea to restrict such crisis in the future. Health promotion models work on identification, history, results of a healthcare problem and have a target outcome for the campaign. The UK government has launched a number of health promotions for current health problems.
Some of these promotions are for smoke cessation, cancer, child obesity, drug abuse and drinking problems. The policy highlights the problem by giving statistics of alcohol related hospital admissions and deaths. The policy aims to build awareness on harmful impacts of alcohol on families’ lives, and ultimately compel them to overcome their bad habit. Role of experts is not confined tending to ill people needs; instead it lays upon them the responsibility of maintaining the community’s health. Health professionals are skilled to identify unsaid health problems during examinations. They can play their part for early screening of a malady through vigilance. Professionals on a higher level of administration should demonstrate to their co-workers and subordinates, the level of commitment needed for the purpose.
The professionals also need to pay special attention to their well being for executing their role in the health system. The task of a professional includes education and promotion of preventive care to all the available community. The government employees and health system professionals should collaborate towards a healthy society. They share a goal of providing quality healthcare to all citizens. The caregivers should incorporate themselves with organizations, working for the welfare of society in the domain of healthcare. They should use these platforms for sharing their knowledge and practices with healthcare workers from other areas, and the general public. The young professionals should be encouraged to take up pro bono work at the start of their career. The government aims to develop healthcare from primary levels, which is not possible without the aid from every health personnel. These people should be trained for the promotion activities.
The health department sets target for the health promotion activities. If the partners and collaborators are not interdependent upon each other and are excessively autonomous, not taking responsibility of each other’s actions or accountable to the other partner, then the partnership can collapse. For instance, if the a health care organization deals with a situation negligently and is not able to handle any emergency situation, the performance of the social care will also be effected because of being in partnership with the other. Health perception and views of an individual greatly influence his or her response to healthcare situations. This opinion is affected by a person’s religion, ethnical background and culture (Horne et al, 2004, p. 1307-13). Education and experience modify it to some extent in later life, but the primary instincts stay with the person.
The principles become more influential when the person holding these is a healthcare practitioner rather than a general man (Callaghan, 1999, p. 28-35). People rely on their physician, nurse or pharmacist to give them expert opinion on health related matters. The last but not the least important concept in partnerships and collaboration is the process. The way an organization works constitutes its processes and exclusive procedures. In collaboration however, the methods and processes have to be merged; they have to synchronized and harmonized with each other and then worked upon. The strategies and processes followed by one organization should also be applied to the collaborating partners and organizations. According to the frameworks put forward by West, the literature on the effectiveness of groups reveals and explains about the model of partnerships that entails concepts such as inputs of the tasks, composition and performance of the groups and teams, the context and culture of the organizations and the environment of the organizations.
This framework also entails the explanation of variables that elucidate the performance and working of the collaboration. These variables include such factors as the leadership effect, communications patterns and the processes of decision making. This model is utilized and practised by the Aston Centre for Health Organizational Research to analyse and study the National Health System of United Kingdom. Faced with numerous challenges, the health care sector in the United Kingdom follows and adheres to the concepts and frameworks for the partnerships at various levels. The government and the health care sector have devised numerous ways in which the rights and legal boundaries of the professionals and patients are outlines. Whether the health services join hand for collaboration or they work independently, the effectiveness of the partnership is always working and striving for the utmost care of the patient and the general public.
Providing relevant health information to patients under health promotion programs is of paramount importance. Health promotion induces a positive difference in people’s life but accepting this development is tricky. The health promoter should provide all reasonable support to the subject to help him, or her get on with the change. The first step in the series of development events is to help patient understand the change. For example, a cancer patient will need thorough explanation of his or her illness, expected results of treatment, and most importantly the adverse effects of the treatment. Appropriate counselling leads to better outcomes of promotion and therapy than expected.
The Article for Foundation for People with Learning and Physical Disabilities The research objective of the current article is to find the significant impact caused by increased BMI and anaesthetic duration on recovery of protective airways subsequent to sevoflaure opposed to desflurane. Increased BMI may increase the body’s capacity to store potent inhaled anaesthetics, more so with more soluble agents. Accordingly, we asked whether increased BMI and longer anaesthesia prolonged airway reflex recovery. For anesthesia means a moderately increased BMI is usually no increased risk. In the multivariate linear regression, the variables: type of anesthesia, duration of anesthesia, body mass index and temperature of the operating room were directly related to the average body temperature of the subjects investigated. Nurses are responsible for planning and implementing effective interventions that help to minimize costs and most importantly reduce complications associated with hypothermia.
Quantitative methodological approach was adopted for the conduct of the study, which follows a non-experimental research, correlation and forecasting. Sampling is the first and foremost step of conducting a research. It is important to find out all those people who will be able to provide the information that will be used by the manager of organization. Sampling form the basis of all researches and thus the organization conducting research must be very careful in selecting a sample. The research study analyzed the sample of patients aged 18–75, in BMI ranges 18–24, 25–29, and ≥30 kg m−2, undergoing surgery for which an LMA was the planned method of airway management, and randomly assigned these patients to receive sevoflurane or desflurane.
T-test, Chi-square, ANOVA, and linear regression were used in the research. For the purpose of hypothesis testing, independent Sample T test is performed on the provided data. By applying the t-test for independent samples, we can decide whether two independent samples from two populations have equal arithmetic mean values i.e. to find the significant difference between the sample means.
Detailed Analysis of the Article
The term nonverbal communication refers to the type of communication which does not include direct usage of words by the person. This kind of conversation includes the signs given through eyes, the angle of the head, hands, or the facial expressions. The nonverbal might also include the usage of paper messages. The effective communication involves the ability of the care workers to analyse the situation and understand the verbal or non verbal communicative messages delivered by the other care workers and work on them effectively. In the profession of care delivery, affection and care are the two feelings that are most important to be delivered to the patient. Touch can play an important role in this regard. Through touch the affection is delivered to the patient and he might feel the reflection of the carers feeling for the patient which might make him feel better emotionally.
Misinterpretation of touch is, however, one of the most commonly existing problems. Sometimes the touch can be misinterpreted as sexual interest, aggressive stroke or sympathetic feeling which might not please the patient. Therefore, the care professionals have to be really carefully when the deliver their affection through touch. Another commonly existing problem is that in some cultures and religions the touch of a man to woman is not ethically or religiously allowed. The care professionals have to be extremely careful in such circumstances. The comfort can be misunderstood and that might cause a conflict which might be problematic and difficult to handle. In order to avoid this situation, it is important that the permission should be taken from the patient.
The care professionals are a mixed set of professionals that belong to different ethnical regions, cultures and religious backgrounds. These individuals, under normal circumstances might have their own different set of cultural, social and religious values. However in the organisations of social and health care, it is important that they should follow the care principles and they should support every individual equally regardless of their background and race. Every individual should be treated with respect and dignity of every patient should be maintained. The ethical and cultural values of the patients should be respected by the carers and the individuals belonging to low financial background should not be mistreated with lack of care and support.
The difference of language might be a barrier in communication, but to overcome that non verbal communication can be used. Sometimes the patients are disappointed and they might behave aggressively. Within the health and social care organisations, the fine practice of communication contributes to the effectiveness and competence of the services provided. It also develops the trust and confidence in the staff members who consider in the policies and systems of the organisation as trustworthy and precise. The professionals and staff members of health care espouse the good practice and code of conduct that participates in the efficacy of the services. This is done by the effective communication within the limitations of organisational policies and systems in accordance with a system of partnership and team work.
This paper was written after the understanding of the cases that were provided within the assignment. There were five main tasks that were to be fulfilled. The health care providers under the National Health Services perform well and more efficiently when working in partnerships and groups. The utmost important factor in such relations is the communication and the perception of the relation by both the partners. The communication pattern says a lot about the evaluation and performance of the partnerships. The way partners collaborate is vastly dependent upon the relations they hold with the partners. The service provides various methods and procedures for the evaluation of the practices and procedures in partnerships and collaborations. I would analyse this paper as a detailed approach in order to understand the issues that are faced within the basic needs of the prospects.
Butt,G; Reis, M. M; Browne, G (2008) Inter-professional Partnerships In Chronic Illness Care: A Conceptual Model For Measuring Partnership Effectiveness. Int J Integr Care. P. n.d. data retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2387190/ on May 31, 2013 D’amour, D; Videla, F. M; Rodriguez, M. S. L & Beaulieu, D. M (2005) The Conceptual Basis For Interprofessional Collaboration: Core Concepts And Theoretical Frameworks. Journal of Interprofessional Care, Supplement 1: 116 – 131. Pp. 122-124. Data retrieved from http://www.cihc.ca/library/bitstream/10296/380/1/DArmourEtAl_ConceptualBasis_May2005.pdf on Williams, P (2007) Working In Collaboration: Learning from Theory and Practice. National Leadership and Innovation Agency for Healthcare. Pp. 17-20. Data retrieved from http://nliah.com/portal/microsites/Uploads/Resources/lpXXIgAU6.pdf on May 31, 2013 Bennett, P., Calman, K., & Curtis, S. (2009). Risk communication and public health. Oxford University Press, retrieved from http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=PBH3bxSqdy0C&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq=Co