1. Management by Objectives (MB0)
It is a process where the employees and the superiors come together to identify some goals which are common to them, the employees set their own goals to be achieved, the benchmark is taken as the criteria for measuring their performances and their involvement is there in deciding the course of action to be followed. The most important aspect of MBO is measuring the actual performances of the employee with the standards set by them. It is also said to be a process that integrates organizational objectives into individual objectives. Entire program me of MBO is divided in four major steps i.e setting up of goal, action planning, comparison and timely review. Setting up of goal-In goal setting superior and subordinate together set certain goals, i.e the expected outcome that each employee is supposed to achieve. In action planning, the manner in which goals could be achieved is determined i.e. identifying the activities which are necessary to perform; to achieve pr determined goals or standards.
When the employees start with their activities, they come to know what is to be done, what has been done, and what remains to be done and it also gives an idea about the resources to be achieved. In the third step, the goals set by the individual employee are compared with the actual goals achieved. It gives an idea to the evaluator as why there is a variation in desired outcome and actual outcome .Such a comparison helps create need for training so as to enhance employees’ performance. Finally, in the timely review step, corrective actions are taken so that actual performances do not deviates from standards established in beginning. The main reason for conducting reviews is not to humiliate the performer but to assist him in better performances in future.
Few advantages of MBO are a) it is outcome –oriented. It co-ordinates the planning and control functions and provides motivation) Employees are clear about the task that they are expected to perform and also how they may be evaluated.MBO do have certain limitations such as it is time consuming, employees and the superiors jointly setting the goals may lead to conflict as employee would always like to set lower goal and the superior would like to set it on the higher side, lack of confidence in employee by management.
2. Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scales
This method is a combination of traditional rating scales and critical incidents methods. It consists of preset critical areas of job performance or sets of behavioural statements which describes the important job performance qualities as good or bad for example the qualities like inter personal relationships, flexibility and consistency, job knowledge etc. These statements are developed from critical incidents. These behavioral examples are then again translated into appropriate performance dimensions. Those that are selected into the dimension are retained. The final groups of behavior incidents are then scaled numerically to a level of performance that is perceived to represent.
a) It reduces rating errors
b) Behavior is assessed over traits.
c) It gives an idea about the behavior to the employee and the rater about which behaviors bring good Performance and which bring bad performance.
3. Assessment Centres
This is a system of assessment where individual employee is assessed by many experts by using different technique of performance appraisal. The techniques which may be used are role playing, case studies, simulation exercises, transactional analysis etc. In this method employees from different departments are brought together for an assignment which they are supposed to perform in a group, as if they are working for a higher post or promoted. Each employee is ranked by the observer on the basis of merit.
The basic purpose behind assessment is to recognize whether a particular employee can be promoted, or is there any need for training or development. This method has certain advantages such as it helps the observer in making correct decision in terms of which employee has the capability of getting promoted, but it has certain disadvantages also it is costly and time consuming, discourages the poor performers etc.
4. 360 Degree Performance Appraisals
It is the appraisal in a wider perspective where the comment about the employees’ performance comes from all the possible sources that are directly or indirectly related with the employee on his job. In 360 degree performance appraisal an employee can be appraised by his peers, managers (i.e. superior), subordinates, team members, customers, suppliers/ vendors -anyone who comes into direct or indirect contact with the employee and can provide necessary information or feedback regarding performance of the employee the “on-the-job”. Employee self appraisal gives an option to the employee to know his own strengths and weaknesses, his achievements, and judge his own performance.
Appraisal by superior forms the traditional part of the 360 degree performance appraisal where the employees’ responsibilities and actual performance is judged by the superior. Appraisal by subordinate gives a chance to evaluate the employee on the basis of communication and motivating abilities, superior’s ability to delegate the work, leadership qualities etc. It is also known as internal customers; the correct opinion given by peers can aid to find employees’ who are co-operative, employees who ready to work in a team and understanding towards others.
5. Cost Accounting Method
In this method performance of an employee is evaluated on the basis of monetary returns the employee gives to his or her organization. A relationship is recognized between the cost included in keeping the employee in an organization and the benefit the organization gets from him or her. The evaluation is based on the established relationship between the cost and the benefit. The following factors are considered while evaluating an employee’s performance: i. Interpersonal relationship with others.
ii. Quality of product produced or service given to the organization.
iii. Wastage, damage, accidents caused by the employee.
iv. Average value of production or service by an employee.
v. Overhead cost incurred.