Fred Maiorino was employed by Schering-Plough for 35 years and on July 19, 1991 he was terminated. Fred was terminated because the lack of motivation he has once Jim Reed was hired. The factors that inhibit Jim Reed from motivated Fred Maiorino are lack of leadership, lack of goals, and lack of an effective employee performance review.
Jim Reed fails to motivate Fred because of the unsuccessful role as leader. A successful leader has the ability to manage and supervise the performances of their employees. (Kacmar, Carlson, Harris 2013). These authors describe several leadership styles but the most effective in motivating employees is transformational leadership style. The transformational leadership style inspires employees by establishing a work environment that is motivating and invigorating (Kacmar, Carlson, Harris 2013). Motivating employees initiate them to believe in organizations ambitions. The transformation leadership technique encourages and motivates employees to be mindful of the significance of their role within the company. The authors explain a transformation leader that stimulates and motivates employees has the ability to achieve astonishing outcomes and improve their leadership capability. They also assist in developing and strengthening employees.
They are effective in overcoming defiance among the employees by instilling passion, strength and cooperation between employees and establishing a set of standards to follow. Leaders must demonstrate ethics, honesty, beliefs and trust to establish a positive work atmosphere so employees will be motivated to do their best. (Pryor, Singleton, Taneja, & Humphreys, 2010) A leader that motivates allows an employee to feel confident and appreciated for their work. Employees want to believe that they are valued and respected by their managers. Transformational leadership significantly enhances the competence leaders have to impact an increase in collaboration among employees.
According to Schuh, Zhang, & Tian (2013) the end result of transformational leadership is “uniformly positive”. Transformational leaders believe employees are a valued asset instead of, just an employee. Employees should be involved in making decisions. Transformational leaders should be able to listen and have the ability to communicate with employees. A transformational leader will allow employees to disprove of ideas and offer new suggestions. Employee motivate and morale will increase with the continually use of the transformational leadership style. Jim Reed should have adopted a transformational leadership style to motivate Fred Mariono.
Jim Reed’s lack of goals contributes to the failure of motivating Fred. Goal setting is a tool that can be used to motivate employees, allowing them to feel important and valued as an employee. (Latham 2004) Efficient goal setting is force of performance. According to Locke & Latham (2002), the goal setting theory emphasizes that employees given precise goals than being told “do your best” The more successful attempts an employee has a obtaining their goal, the higher their job satisfaction will be. Setting goals for employees instill purpose and meaning to their job and allows them to challenge each other. Achieving goals increase employee’s interest, enhanced sense of personal efficiency, and pride in job performance. (Latham 2004)
The importance of goals to employees influences the commitment to the goal. Goals are regulated by aptitude, commitment, feedback, difficulty, and situational elements. (Barsky 2008) An employee’s success in accomplishing stimulating but obtainable goals is directly correlated with positive and valued results. The higher the significance of the expected results for the employee, the higher the goal commitment to achieve it (Latham 2004). Once the goal is set, it is the employee’s assessment that will govern the level of performance (Latham, 2004). Specific goals set for Fred would have challenged, motivated, and increased his level of performance
The failure of implementing an effective performance evaluation contributed to not motivating Fred. Jim Reeds method could be described as unintended outcome.(Van De Mieroop, Vrolix 2014) that is obtained from unacceptable performance ratings. Performance evaluations should be comprised of principles that determine the level of performance and a valuation to determine the achievements of the employee. An effective performance evaluation will clearly state employee’s expectations and standards. A performance evaluation review should not be based on historical factors. The purpose of performance reviews should focus on the future. (Van DE Mieroop, Vrolix 2014) The most effective way to increase performance is by direct feedback (Ahmed, Sultan, Paul, Azeen 2013). The key motives for lack of performance can be accredited to lack of managerial success due to the lack of manager’s direction and feedback to employees. .(Yadav, Sushil, Sagar 2014)
Leaders need to make employees aware of their responsibilities, obligations to the company and their expectation and then offer continuous feedback. Employees need to be made aware of the progress of their performance levels. (Yadav, Sushil, Sagar 2014) Many studies have revealed that most performance appraisals do not meet the company’s expectations because it emphasis the weaknesses of the employees. This has a tendency to make employees very defensive about the negative focus on their weaknesses. Along with distrust, negative feedback can deter performance, making the performance review ineffective for developing an employee. Jim Reed’s lack of an effective performance evaluation played a role in the termination of Fred.
Jim Reed needs to adopt a transformational leadership style. Employee ‘s level of performance is positively impacted when transformational leadership is applied. There are four transformational leadership approaches to increase productivity, increase motivation, and decrease turnover. (Zhu, Akhtar 2014) The first approach is to for leaders to set a superior example. This gains the leader respect and trust from employees. They are able to motivate, create change and boost the interest of employees. Second approach is leaders that inspire and are motivated themselves have the ability to motivate employees to be dedicated to the company’s goals. Leaders will also have the ability to encourage their employees to work together and obtain goals and increase their level of performance. (Baca Walker 2013) The third approach is that challenging employees intellectually will stimulate and encourage creativity and originality.
Doing this, will able employees to think decisively and develop problem solving skills to assist the company in becoming more effective. The last approach, transformation leadership technique promotes employee consideration. Transformation leaders care about each employee and are often viewed as advisors and teachers. Schuh, Zhang and Tian (2013)have determined that there is a positive correlation between the behavior of managers and employee results. The success of an organization is directly correlated with an increase in level of performance, efficiency, and improvement. A transformational leadership technique applied would have assisted in motivating Fred. Jim Reed needs to set goals for employees based on the goal setting theory to motivate employees. Performance is indirectly affected by setting goals. According to Latham & Locke (2002), there are several key factors to ensure that the goals are effective. Employees must possess the skills and knowledge to achieve the goal given.
A learning goal should be set when the employee lacks the knowledge to obtain the goal. The employee needs to be committed to the goal. To ensure that an employee is committed, the goal must be important and deemed as achievable to the employee. Its neccassary that an employee feels committed to achieving the goal for the level of performance to be affected. (Bateman, Barry, 2012) One important factor that facilitates goal commitment is the belief that the individual are able to attain the goal. (Locke, Latham, 2002). Managers need to give the employee feedback, to keep the current on their achievements. Employees that learn they are below their goal usually escalate their determination or adjust their strategy to ensure they achieve their goal. Locke and Latham (2002) suggest that when feedback allows performance to be tracked in relation to one’s goal, goal setting is more effective. When employees realize that they are not on track to accomplish their, they will work harder to increase level of performance. (Tamemag, OHora, Maglieri 2013)
If employees are unaware of their progress, they have no way of knowing that change is needed in their performance. The manager is also responsible for ensuring that the employee has all necessary resources to achieve their goal. The implementation of the goal setting theory would have assisted Jim Reed in motivating Fred and could have prevented him from being terminated. Jim Reed needs to base his employee performance review off of the Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale. Research has determined one of the most effective ways of evaluating employees is the Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale. BARS is technique that evaluates employees based on their level of performance. This scale combines basics from critical incident and graphic rating scale methods.( Hauenstein, Brown, Sinclair, 2010) BARS will assist in managing changes for promotions and helps in addressing poor performance. It allows the ability to evaluate other programs within the organization.
Ahmed, I., Sultana, I., Paul, S., & Azeem, A. (2013). Employee performance evaluation: a fuzzy approach. International Journal Of Productivity & Performance Management, 62(7), 718-734 Bacha, E., & Walker, S. (2013). The Relationship Between Transformational Leadership and Followers’ Perceptions of Fairness. Journal Of Business Ethics, 116(3), 667-680 Barsky, A. (2008). Understanding the Ethical Cost of Organizational Goal-Setting: A Review and Theory Development. Journal Of Business Ethics, 81(1), 63-81 Bateman, T. S., & Barry, B. (2012). Masters of the long haul: Pursuing long-term work goals. Journal Of Organizational Behavior, 33(7), 984-1006 Ganster, D. C., Kiersch, C. E., Marsh, R. E., & Bowen, A. (2011). Performance-Based Rewards and Work Stress. Journal Of Organizational Behavior Management, 31(4), 221-235. Hauenstein, N. A., Brown, R. D., & Sinclair, A. L. (2010). BARS and Those Mysterious, Missing Middle Anchors. Journal Of Business & Psychology, 25(4), 663-672. Kacmar, K., Carlson, D. S., & Harris, K. J. (2013). Interactive Effect of Leaders’ Influence Tactics and Ethical Leadership on Work Effort and Helping Behavior. Journal Of Social Psychology, 153(5), 577-597. Latham, G. P. (2004). The motivational benefits of goal-setting. Academy Of Management Executive, 18(4), 126-129 Locke, E.A.,&Latham, G.P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey. American Psychologist, 57, 705–717. Pryor, M. G., Singleton, L. P., Taneja, S., & Humphreys, J. H. (2010). Workplace fun and its correlates: A conceptual inquiry. International Journal of Management, 27(2), 294-302. Schuh, S., Zhang, X., & Tian, P. (2013). For the Good or the Bad? Interactive Effects of Transformational Leadership with Moral and Authoritarian Leadership Behaviors. Journal Of Business Ethics, 116(3), 629-640 Tammemagi, T., O’Hora, D., & Maglieri, K. A. (2013). The Effects of a Goal Setting Intervention on Productivity and Persistence in an Analogue Work Task. Journal Of Organizational Behavior Management, 33(1), 31-54 Van De Mieroop, D., & Vrolix, E. (2014). A Discourse Analytical Perspective on the Professionalization of the Performance Appraisal Interview. Journal Of Business -Communication, 51(2), 159-182 Whiting, H. J., Kline, T. B., & Sulsky, L. M. (2008). The performance appraisal congruency scale: An
assessment of person-environment fit. International Journal Of Productivity And Performance Management, 57(3), 223-236 Yadav, N., Sushil, & Sagar, M. (2014). Revisiting performance measurement and management: deriving linkages with strategic management theories. International Journal Of Business Performance Management, 15(2), 87-105 Zhu, Y., & Akhtar, S. (2014). How transformational leadership influences follower helping behavior: The role of trust and prosocial motivation. Journal Of Organizational Behavior, 35