This chapter will focus on the review of the existing literature to the specific idea of effects of guidance and counseling on academic performance in secondary school level. The information gathered from the literature will be used to define a benchmark against which the SGC services may be measured.
2.2 Review of Related Studies
Few topics have been identified as per the problem, effects of guidance and counseling on academic performance in secondary schools.
2.2.1 Importance of Guidance and Counseling in Secondary Schools.
Kottman (1995) came up with the following as to why guidance and counseling is important. An individual experiences positive feelings from his/her teachers, parents and adults. They derive personal meaning from their learning activities and are able to develop and enhance academic skills to the maximum of their ability. Guidance and counseling programs help the learner to be able to learn necessary coping skills so that they can be able to deal with the normal developmental concerns and problems that they will encounter. Learners should be able to realize that they are responsible for their own behaviors and so they have to work with parents in variety of planned programes to assist them to develop attitudes and skills to enhance the academic and social development. According to Krumboltz(2002), the objective of the program is to bring about the maximum development and self realization of human potential for the benefit of individual and society.
Kileen et al (1992), states that career guidance foster efficiency and social equity. It is important in supporting individual decisions, reduces drop outs and mismatch contribution in performance especially in academics. By having guidance and counseling programs, it promotes self understanding, helps one to make realistic decisions and overcome personality deficits. It is the process of helping individuals to learn to deal with difficulties and to think critically about themselves and their future. Hattie et al (199), advocacy that helps one to develop personal discipline, proper use and management of time, work, leisure and self reliance. The program aimed at helping the students to harmonize. Killeen et al (2001) states that it is important, in supporting individual decisions, reduce drop outs and mismatch contribution in performance especially in academics. On the other hand Hattie et al (1999) agrees that guidance and counseling in high schools helps to develop personal discipline, proper management of time and self reliance.
2.2.2 Organizing Guidance and Counseling Program.
According to Lutomia and Sikollia(2002) the head teachers are supposed to give room or provide room for the teacher/lecturer in charge of guidance and counseling . This is because some problems faced by students are personal and they may need private discussions. The room should be in conducive environment and confidentiality should be of high degree. The coordinator should be the guidance and counseling teacher assisted by other members i.e. boarding master/mistress, games master and house master/mistress. According to Kottman (1995), guidance and counseling programs in schools is that programs developed in district wide, counselor have to include the personnel from superintended office if it has numbers of schools in the district, the principal and other specialists are involved, but for a single individual school, the principal is the only person involved. Makinde (1983) had a problem in implementing the guidance and counseling programs because there is a natural resistance from change. There is also lack of clarity about the new role.
2.2.3 Qualification of a Good Counselor.
Durlk (2005), in review studies reports that the evidence indicated that lay or non-professional counselors tend to be more effective than highly trained experts practioners. Hattie et al (1999) argues that pra-professional are more effective than trained therapist and Berman and Norton (2000), using vigorous criteria for accepting studies as methodology adequately conducted that there is no overall difference in effectiveness between professional and nonprofessional therapist. Pattern (1973) affirms that the non professional helpers have included adult volunteers, parents of children and college student’s models of treatment have received more training to achieve better results. Non professional do better with long term counseling while professional are comparatively more effective short team work. Durlak (2005) adds that non professional such as volunteers achieve good results because of the following factors: a) Able to offer difficult cases to professionals.
b) Restrict themselves to straight forward.
c) Limited cases load.
d) High motivated to help.
e) Perceived by clients to be more genuine.
Corey (2004) indicates that they are advantages in no professional status and relative lack of experience and advanced training. Some of the disadvantages associated with expertise include the danger of burn out due to overwork. Towbin (2006) postulates that possible explanation for the effectiveness of non professional counselor that they are selected from a pool of naturally talented untrained listeners in the community.
2.2.4 Qualities of a Good Counselor
A capable counselor must possess a number of personal qualities and develop the proper attitudes to make a client feel at ease and to build rapport so that a client can self-disclose. Makinde (1983), states that counselors are supposed to be patient, should be a good listener, observe the client speech when he is talking. As a counselor you should not develop any intimate between yourself and the student. The counselor must be confidential in the sense that must always respect and keep the secret of their clients as much as the ethical code allows. The counselor should be honesty if he cannot solve the problem and refer the client to the more experienced professional. Lutomiaa and Skolia (2002), comments that in schools and colleges the person chosen as a counselor should be mature so that he can accept responsibility in schools and society. The counselor should be honest and also conversant with other people’s problems. He should be able to keep secrets, keep records and should not be a gossiper.
2.2.5 Clients Attention
Lutomia and Sikolia (2002), states that a counselor has to be patient to listen to them a let him/her show the learners that he is not in a hurry. The counselor has to give the client adequate time so that he/she can be able to express the problems they are encountered with. Facial expressions and gestures is another factor that strengthens the process of listening and this makes them to be appreciated.
The skills of listening
Active listening and responding appropriately are two of the key skills a counselor must have. Listening makes the person who is talking feel worthy, appreciated and respected. When we give someone all of our attention the speaker responds positively by interacting on a deeper level, perhaps by disclosing personal information or by becoming more relaxed. When a counselor pays particular attention to what the client is saying they are encouraging the client to continue talking, as well as ensuring communication remains open and positive
2.2.6 Guidance and Counseling Services Offered in Schools.
Makinde (1983), states that orientation helps students adjust well in any new environment. Appraisal of inventory services and information whereby you aim at providing students with better knowledge of educational, vocational and social opportunities so that they can make informed choices and decisions.
2.2.7 Challenges in Provision of Guidance and Counseling
Makinde (1983), says that in developing countries, guidance and counseling will become meaning to individual if it focuses on imparting decision making skills, career planning skills, enhancement teacher and parent effectiveness and value clarifications. Parten (1973), adds that problems that face the provision of guidance and counseling are attitudinal, structural, human and cultural. These include failure to engage in careful diagnosis of the organizational problems that guidance and counseling was designed to solve. There is also lack of trained counselors in institutions of learning, lack of enough time and facilities for use by counselors, lack of research work in the guidance and counseling area.
2.2.8 How to Identify Student’s Problems
Tolbert (1959), states that for one to identify a problem in a student is through the lecturer or class teacher. If it is a boarding school, the matron and catering unit can be of great use since they always interact with students. In school records, it is always important when students are admitted to an institution, a file of each should be opened and all the information about the student entered so that incase of a recurring problem, the counselor can refer to the file and find the required information. Patern (1973) argues that other people who know of the student can be approached and information about the student problem can be identified. He adds that some students confide in friends and it is tricky because if the students learn that people are discussing him/her he/she can easily keep off. Therefore a good counselor should be careful when discussing one student with another.
2.2.9 Difficulties in Guidance and Counseling
Krumboltz (2001), states that mass media offer many negative influence and the children/learners are exposed to it than ever before. Some advertisement encourage bad behaviors i.e. the advertisement of some cigarettes, alcohol companies are so colorful that students would like to cope that image or wants to be the same as that person using it and when a counselor tries to discourage it, students will tell him that they have seen people who smoke and drink and yet they are successful. Also televisions encourage students to do wrong because they show romantic movies which young people will enjoy watching. Oketch (1999), agrees that company and influence from peer group is one of the challenges.
The counselor will be aware when there is bad influence from such company and try to persuade the student to avoid it, but the affected students will think of the teacher concerned as the one on the wrong and will become rebellious. Shertzer and Stone (1981), states that the wide curriculum in the current 8-4-4 system of education has many subjects that students need to cover between 8 am-4pm. This makes it difficult because there is always a pressure on the student’s mind which is a problem. On the other hand, the counselor has got no time for counseling because he is always in class or the student is always in class and at 4.00 o’clock the only time left, the student is on the field with games master hence making it difficult for the counselor to operate effectively. Fuster (1990) suggests that pornographic is another hindrance to acceptance of counseling in secondary schools. There are many pornographic materials in circulation and they land into the hands of the innocent girls and boys who end up in participating.
2.2.10 How to draw facts from a student
Patern (1973), writes that a counselor should show interest into discussion by possibly making brief comments, he/she should avoid interrupting a student before he completes his train on thoughts, he/she should always listen to major facts. According to Makinde (1983), he claims that a counselor should not get tired while listening to a student. He/she should listen attentively because this will make the students be willing to listen and contribute. According to Fuster (1990), the counselor should always check his/her opposing opinion and every step confirm if they are together with the students.
Having discussed different literature on guidance and counseling in secondary schools coupled with the researcher own experience as one time student, it is evident enough that there is need for effective counseling model in secondary schools. The many strikes that rocks most of the government secondary schools in 2008 are examples that are still fresh in most peoples mind. This shows that something is very wrong and needs to be addressed as soon as possible. It is in hope that the findings of this study will go along way in addressing most of the recommendations provision of guidance and counseling services in learning institutions. In general there is need for guidance and counseling that necessitates a search for truth. There is need to look at problems that students face in schools and how guidance and counseling may be effective to them.