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Communicable Disease Essay

Communicable diseases, also known as infectious diseases or transmissible diseases, are illnesses that result from the infection, presence and growth of pathogenic (capable of causing disease) biologic agents in an individual human or other animal host. Infections may range in severity from asymptomatic (without symptoms) to severe and fatal. The term infection does not have the same meaning as infectious disease because some infections do not cause illness in a host. Disease causing biologic agents include viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multi-cellular parasites, and aberrant proteins known as prions. Transmission of these biologic agents can occur in a variety of ways, including direct physical contact with an infectious person, consuming contaminated foods or beverages, contact with contaminated body fluids, contact with contaminated inanimate objects, airborne (inhalation), or being bitten by an infected insect or tick. Some disease agents can be transmitted from animals to humans, and some of these agents can be transmitted in more than one way.

Non-Communicable Disease:

A non-communicable disease, or NCD, is a medical condition or disease, which by definition is non-infectious and non-transmissible among people.

Tuberculosis:

Signs and Symptoms:
A bad cough that lasts 3 weeks or longer.
Pain in the chest.
Coughing up blood or sputum (phlegm from deep inside the lungs) Weakness or fatigue.
Weight loss.
No appetite.
Chills.
Fever.
Causes:

Tuberculosis is caused by bacteria that spread from person to person through microscopic droplets released into the air. This can happen when someone with the untreated, active form of tuberculosis coughs, speaks, sneezes, spits, laughs or sings. Although tuberculosis is contagious, it’s not easy to catch. You’re much more likely to get tuberculosis from someone you live with or work with than from a stranger. Most people with active TB who’ve had appropriate drug treatment for at least two weeks are no longer contagious.

Prevention:

If you test positive for latent TB infection, your doctor may advise you to take medications to reduce your risk of developing active tuberculosis. The only type of tuberculosis that is contagious is the active variety, when it affects the lungs. So if you can prevent your latent tuberculosis from becoming active, you won’t transmit tuberculosis to anyone else.

Measles

Signs and Symptoms:
A high temperature, sore eyes (conjunctivitis), and a runny nose usually occur first. Small white spots usually develop inside the mouth a day or so later. … A harsh dry cough is usual.

Going off food, tiredness, and aches and pains are usual.

Causes:

Measles is caused by a virus. It is spread when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or shares food or drinks. The measles virus can travel through the air. This means that you can get measles if you are near someone who has the virus even if that person doesn’t cough or sneeze directly on you

Prevention:

Measles vaccination has markedly reduced the incidence of measles throughout the developed world. However, measles cases still occur in low-incidence countries via importation by travelers. Therefore, maintenance of immunity is important even in countries with a low incidence of measles, since a single imported case can result in large measles outbreaks in the setting of waning immunity.

Chicken Pox

Signs and Symptoms:

Fever (temperature), aches and headache often start a day or so before a rash appears. Rash. Spots appear in crops. They develop into small blisters and are itchy. They can be anywhere on the body. Several crops may develop over several days. … Dry cough and sore throat are common.

Causes:

Chickenpox is caused by the varicella-zoster virus. You catch it by coming into contact with someone who is infected with the virus. It’s a very contagious infection. About 90% of people who have not previously had chickenpox will become infected when they come into contact with the virus.

Prevention:

The chickenpox (varicella) vaccine is the best way to prevent chickenpox.

Typhoid Fever

Signs and Symptoms:

fever that can reach as high as 104°F (40°C)
feeling achy, tired, or weak.
constipation.
diarrhea.
headache.
stomach pain and loss of appetite.
sore throat.

Causes:

Typhoid fever is an acute illness associated with fever caused by the Salmonella typhi bacteria. It can also be caused by Salmonella paratyphi, a related bacterium that usually causes a less severe illness. The bacteria are deposited in water or food by a human carrier and are then spread to other people in the area.

Prevention:

Preventing typhoid fever is to get vaccinated against the illness. Two vaccines are available: a shot that contains killed Salmonella typhi bacteria and a vaccine taken by mouth containing a live but weakened strain of the bacteria. Avoiding risky foods and beverages (especially when traveling in the developing world) is another way to reduce your risk.

MUMPS

Signs and Symptoms:

Fever.
Headache.
Muscle aches.
Tiredness.
Loss of appetite.
Swollen and tender salivary glands under the ears on one or both sides (parotitis)

Causes:

The mumps are caused by a virus called the paramyxovirus. It’s spread from one child to another through direct contact with discharge from the nose and throat. Infected droplets in the air from a sneeze or close conversation can be inhaled and may cause infection.

Prevention:

Use of mumps vaccine (usually administered in measles-mumps-rubella [MMR] or measles-mumps-rubella-varicella [MMRV] vaccines) is the best way to prevent mumps. Children should be given the first dose of mumpsvaccine soon after their first birthday (12 to 15 months of age).

Hepatitis

Signs and Symptoms:
fatigue.
flu-like symptoms.
dark urine.
pale-colored stool.
abdominal pain.
loss of appetite.
unexplained weight loss.
yellow skin and eyes (may be signs of jaundice)

Causes:

Hepatitis can be caused by liver damage from excessive alcohol consumption. This is sometimes referred to as “alcoholic hepatitis.” The alcohol causes the liver to swell and become inflamed. Other toxic causesinclude overuse of medication or exposure to poisons.

Autoimmune Disease.

Prevention:

The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent infection with the virus. The hepatitis A vaccine is typically given in two doses — initial vaccination followed by a booster shot six months later. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends the following individuals receive a hepatitis A vaccine Malaria

Signs and Symptoms:

Fever.
Chills.
Headache.
Sweats.
Fatigue.
Nausea and vomiting.
Causes:
Malaria is caused by the plasmodium parasite. The parasite can be spread to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes.

Prevention:

Malaria can often be avoided using the ABCD approach to prevention which stands for: Awareness of risk – find out whether you are at risk of getting malaria. Bite prevention – avoid mosquito bites by using insect repellent, covering your arms and legs and using a mosquito net. Check whether you need to take malaria prevention tablets – if you do, make sure you take the right antimalarial tablets at the right dose, and finish the course. Diagnosis – seek immediate medical advice if you have malaria symptoms, including up to a year after you return from travelling.

Whooping Cough

Signs and Symptoms:

runny nose.
sneezing.
mild cough.
low-grade fever.

Causes:

Whooping cough is caused by an infection with a bacterium known as Bordetella pertussis. The bacteria attach to the lining of the airways in the upper respiratory system and release toxins that lead to inflammation and swelling.

Prevention:

Preventing whooping cough. In the UK, whooping cough is now rare due to successful vaccination against it. The 5-in-1 vaccine. The whoopingcough vaccine is given as part of the 5-in-1 vaccine (DTaP/IPV/Hib), which also protects against diphtheria, tetanus, polio and Hib (haemophilus influenzae type b).

Dysentery

Signs and Symptoms:

nausea.
vomiting.
abdominal pain.
fever and chills.

Causes:

Bacterial infections are by far the most common causes of dysentery. These infections include Shigella,Campylobacter, E. coli, and Salmonella species of bacteria.

Prevention:

Washing one’s hands after using the toilet, after contact with an infected person, and regularly throughout the day; Washing one’s hands before handling, cooking and eating food, handling babies, and feeding young or elderly people; Keeping contact with someone known to have dysentery to a minimum

Tetanus

Signs and Symptoms:

Headache.
Jaw cramping.
Sudden, involuntary muscle tightening – often in the stomach (muscle spasms) Painful muscle stiffness all over the body.
Trouble swallowing.
Jerking or staring (seizures)
Fever and sweating.
High blood pressure and fast heart rate.

Causes:

Tetanus is a condition caused by a nerve toxin that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani, a cousin of the bacteria that cause gangrene and botulism.

Prevention:

You can easily prevent tetanus by being immunized against the toxin. Almost all cases of tetanus occur in people who’ve never been immunized or who haven’t had a tetanus booster shot within the preceding 10 years.

Flu

Signs and Symptoms:

A 100oF or higher fever or feeling feverish (not everyone with the flu has a fever) A cough and/or sore throat.
A runny or stuffy nose.
Headaches and/or body aches.
Chills.
Fatigue.

Causes:

The flu is actually very different from a cold. While more than 100 different viruses can cause a cold, only influenza virus types A, B, and C cause theflu. Type A and B viruses are responsible for the large flu epidemics. Type C flu virus is more stable and usually causes milder respiratory symptoms.

Prevention:

If you are healthy but exposed to a person with the flu, antiviral drugs can prevent you from getting sick. The sooner you are treated with an antiviral, the more likely it will prevent the flu. Antiviral drugs are 70% to 90% effective at preventing the flu.

Intestinal Parasite

Signs and Symptoms:

Abdominal pain.
Diarrhea.
Nausea or vomiting.
Gas or bloating.
Dysentery (loose stools containing blood and mucus)
Rash or itching around the rectum or vulva.
Stomach pain or tenderness.

Causes:

Intestinal parasites are usually transmitted when someone comes in contact with infected feces (for example, through contaminated soil, food, or water). In the U.S., the most common protozoa are giardia and cryptosporidium. Parasites can live within the intestines for years without causing any symptoms.

Common Cold

Signs and Symptoms:
Sore throat.
Mucus buildup in your nose.
Difficulty breathing through your nose.
Swelling of your sinuses.
Sneezing.
Cough.
Headache.
Tiredness.

Causes:

The common cold is a self-limited contagious illness that can be caused by a number of different types of viruses. The common cold is medically referred to as a viral upper respiratory tract infection. Symptoms of thecommon cold may include cough, sore throat, nasal congestion, runny nose, and sneezing.

Prevention:

No vaccine has been developed for the common cold, which can be caused by many different viruses. But you can take some common-sense precautions to slow the spread of cold viruses

Pneumonia

Signs and Symptoms:
Nausea/vomiting
Rapid breathing.
Rapid heartbeat.
Shaking chills
Causes:

Bacteria-like organisms, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, which typically produce milder signs and symptoms than do other types of pneumonia. Bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Prevention:

Get a flu shot every year to prevent seasonal influenza. The flu is a common cause of pneumonia, so preventing the flu is a good way to prevent pneumonia! Get vaccinated against pneumococcal pneumonia if you are at high risk of getting this type of pneumonia.

Hypertension

Signs and Symptoms:

Causes:

A stroke is an interruption of the blood supply to any part of the brain because a blood vessel is blocked by a clot or burst open. A stroke is sometimes called a “brain attack.”

Prevention:

A heart-healthy lifestyle can help you prevent high blood pressure. These changes are especially important for people who have risk factors for high blood pressure that cannot be changed, including family history, race, or age.

Anemia

Signs and Symptoms:

Fatigue.
Pale skin.
A fast or irregular heartbeat.
Shortness of breath.
Chest pain.
Dizziness.
Cognitive problems.
Cold hands and feet.

Causes:

Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is caused by a shortage of the element iron in your body. … Vitamin deficiency anemias. …
Anemia of chronic disease. …
Aplastic anemia. …
Anemias associated with bone marrow disease. …
Hemolytic anemias. …
Sickle cell anemia.

Prevention:

Many types of anemia can’t be prevented. However, you can help avoid iron deficiency anemia and vitamin deficiency anemias by choosing a diet that includes a variety of vitamins and nutrients

Asthma

Signs and Symptoms:
Frequent cough, especially at night.
Losing your breath easily or shortness of breath.
Feeling very tired or weak when exercising.
Wheezing or coughing after exercise.
Feeling tired, easily upset, grouchy, or moody.
Decreases or changes in lung function as measured on a peak flow meter.

Causes:

Asthma triggers are different from person to person and can include: Airborne allergens, such as pollen, animal dander, mold, cockroaches and dust mites. Respiratory infections, such as the common cold.

Physical activity (exercise-induced asthma)
Cold air.
Air pollutants and irritants, such as smoke.

Prevention:

You need to know how to prevent or minimize future asthma attacks. If your asthma attacks are triggered by an allergic reaction, avoid your triggers as much as possible. Keep taking your asthma medications after you are discharged. This is extremely important.

Migraine

Signs and Symptoms:

a headache that lasts anything from four up to 72 hours.
pulsating or throbbing pain, often just on one side of your head. a headache that gets worse when you’re active or stops you from being active. feeling sick or vomiting.
increased sensitivity to light and noise.

Causes:

Hormonal changes in women. Fluctuations in estrogen seem to trigger headaches in many women with known migraines. … Foods. Aged cheeses, salty foods and processed foods may trigger migraines. … Food additives. …

Drinks. …
Stress. …
Sensory stimuli. …
Changes in wake-sleep pattern. …
Physical factors.

Prevention:

Not all migraine headaches can be prevented. However, identifying your headache triggers can help to reduce the frequency and severity of migraine attacks.

Cardiovascular

Signs and Symptoms:
Chest pain (angina)
Shortness of breath.
Pain, numbness, weakness or coldness in your legs or arms, if the blood vessels in those parts of your body are narrowed.

Causes:

Atherosclerosis is also the most common cause of cardiovasculardisease, and it’s often caused by an unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, being overweight and smoking. All of these are major risk factors for developing atherosclerosis and, in turn, cardiovascular disease.


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