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Chapter 12 QFR Fundamental of Management Essay

1. Describe the difference between communication and effective communication. How can a sender verify that a communication was effective? How can a receiver verify that a communication was effective? Communication is the process of transmitting information from one person to another. Effective communication is the process of sending a message in such a way that the message received is a close meaning as possible to the message intended. To encode and transmitted through appropriate channel. After messages are received it is decoded back into a form that is meaningful for the receiver. 2. What are the similarities and differences of oral and written communication?

What kinds of situations call for the use of oral methods? What situations call for written communication? Oral communication is face to face conversation group discussions, telephone calls, and other circumstances in which the spoken word is used to transmit meaning. Written communication is memos, letters, reports, notes and other circumstances in which the written word is used to transmit meaning. Oral communication or email may be preferred when a message is personal, nonroutine, and brief. Written is best used when it is impersonal, routine and longer.

5. Describe the individual and organizational barriers to effective communication. For each barrier, describe one action that a manager could take to reduce the problems caused by that barrier. Individual barriers are conflicting or inconsistent signals, credibility about the subject, reluctance to communicate, poor listening skills, and predispositions about the subjects.

Organization barriers are semantics, status or power differences, different perceptions, and noise, overload and language differences. Overcoming individual skills are develop good listening, encourage two way communication, be aware of language and meaning, maintain credibility, be sensitive to receiver’s and sender’s perspective.

Chapter 13 QFR
2. What are the stages of group development? Do all teams develop through all the stages discussed in this chapter? Why or why not? How might the management of a mature team differ from the management of teams that are not yet mature? The stages of group development are (1) forming—bringing members together and getting them acquainted; (2) storming—developing group identity, structure and leadership, often through conflicts; (3) norming—accepting and codifying role structures and behavioral norms; and (4) performing—moving beyond group formation to begin accomplishing the group’s purpose.

Groups typically move through all the stages in the order given, and groups that try to “short cut” the group development process will often have unresolved issues that will persistently re-surface. The management of mature teams can focus more on performance than on effective development, which means a focus on tasks, rather than on relationships, structures, and culture. For example, while members of a developing group may want or need to spend time getting to know their fellow members through “ice-breaker” activities, members of mature groups may resent being forced to spend time on such activities. 4. Identify two examples of informal leaders.

Can a person be a formal and an informal leader at the same time? Examples of informal leaders might include such persons as the most experienced secretary in a work group, an intelligent and articulate student who serves as a spokesperson for the class, or a neighbor who organizes social events. Formal leadership is conferred by one’s position within the organization while informal leadership is granted to individuals who are admired and respected by others.

Clearly then, one person can be both a formal and an informal leader. An example would be a tenured professor who has a formal leadership role in his or her department or college and who is admired and respected by students and colleagues, serving as an informal role model.

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