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Calamansi and Onion Essay

The researchers would like to thank their dearest friend and brother, God almighty for guiding them through the right path and to the success of their investigatory project. The researchers also would like to give their thanks to their parents, who supported them in all aspects and providing such tender care. The researchers give thanks to their loveliest mentor, Mdm. Rose for providing them with information in doing these, and molding them as a researcher and a curious person, who is ready to give their observation and their mind-blowing yet practical conclusions. Therefore, you transformed them into a person who is ready to improve the quality of life through research.


Cockroaches are one of the most common household pests. Insects, like those are a great hassle to people, being a vector transmitter of diseases.
In this study, the researchers, in order to solve this problem made an experiment that could possibly yield to a natural cockroach killer. As enough knowledge was earned to state their hypothesis, the researchers began their experiment by making 3 different kinds of mixtures comparing it to the commercialized cockroach killer.

In their conclusion, they found out that the Natural Cockroach Killer has a great potential in eliminating cockroaches. Due to the availability of materials to be used, those who would create their experiment would be able to save their money for other more important expenses.

Cockroaches are one of the most commonly noted pest insect due to their population. They are abundant in and around dwellings in temperate areas. Cockroaches are also the hardest insect to eradicate on this planet. They are capable of being active for even a month without food or can survive with even at limited resources. It is very important to avoid cockroaches since they transmit bacteria and viruses such as salmonella or locally termed as food poisoning. Since this insects feed on human, they also can serve as vectors for communicable disease transmission.

To control these pests, commercial insecticides are usually used in many households to eliminate this type of pest. But this insecticide has many disadvantages since they can pose danger in our environment which could result to air pollution. Chemicals inhaled by the person using could trigger respiratory illnesses. Hence,researchers are challenged to make their own way of getting rid of them for the good of humanity.

This study seeks the possibility of using the extracts of Calamansi and Onion as cockroach killer. The Calamansi and Onion extract as cockroach killer can be possible by botanical and chemical properties that can be naturally found within the fruits. Calamansi have a chemical property called D-limonene which has the capacity to destroy the protective wax coating of an insect. Onion also has a component called s-oxide which has the capacity to suffocate the respiratory tract of an insect. This study does not only help in lessening cockroaches or killing cockroaches. This will also help people save money rather than spending money for expensive insecticides. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This study seeks the possibility of using Calamansi (Citrofortunellamicrocarpa) and Onion (Allium cepa) extract as an effective Natural Cockroach Killer.

The Calamansi an Onion Extract as natural Cockroach Killer can be an Alternative for commercialized cockroach killer.


INDIVIDUALIndividual can greatly benefit since the produced Natural Cockroach Killer is very affordable, thus, lessening the expenses than buying insecticides.

GOVERNMENTIt helps the government lessen their expenses for buying insecticides and for medical and health needs of the people being transmitted by diseases cause by cockroaches.

ENTREPRENEURS/It help restaurant owners lessen their expenses for buying Restaurant Owners insecticides because they can use their excess calamansi and onion. The product will also help maintain sanitation of the facility.

This study is focused only on developing of the extracts of Calamansi an Onion for killing cockroaches. The researcher will conduct the study including all laboratory works and research in the house of one of the researchers which is in Talamban Cebu City for only about two (2) weeks. The subject of the study is the effectiveness of calamansi and onion extract as cockroach killer.

D-Limonene-is the major component of the oil extracted from the Calamansi. S-oxide-is a component in onion that suffocates insect’s respiratory system. Salmonella-is a food poisoning caused by cockroaches.

Botanical-is a substance obtained from a plant and used as an additive

Citrofortunellamicrocarpa, the calamondin or calamansi, is a fruit tree in the family Rutaceae native Asia. Other English language common names include calamonding,calamandarin, golden lime, Panama orange, Chinese orange, acid orange. Its cultivation has spread throughout Southeast Asia, India, Hawaii, the West Indies, and Centraland North America. The plant is characterized by wing-like appendages on the leaf stalks and white or purplish flowers. Its fruit has either a spongy or leathery rind with a juicy pulp that is divided into sections.Citrofortunellamicrocarpa is a shrub or small tree growing to 3–6 metres (9.8–20 ft). The fruit of the calamondin resembles a small, round lime, usually 25-35mm in diameter, but sometimes up to 45mm. The fruit is indigenous and widely cultivated in the Philippines.

The Calamondin bears a small citrus fruit that is used to flavor foods and drinks. Calamondin has several alternative medicinal uses. When rubbed on insect bites, the juice is said to relieve the itching and reduce the irritation. It can also be used as a natural acne medicine or taken orally as cough medicine and is a natural anti-inflammatory. (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calamondin) It is said that calamansi is an acid citrus, a group that includes lemons and limes. This is because the flesh is orange, juicy and acidic and with a fine lime-orange flavor. One bite of this fruit can pucker your mouth. Calamansi fruit, when ripe, is very sour when first tasted but subsequent tasted fruits can make your mouth sweet. If the fruit is picked too soon, calamansi is bitter. (www.fnri.dost.gov.ph) D-Limonene

Limonene is a colorless liquid hydrocarbon classified as a cyclic terpene. The more common D-isomer possesses a strong smell of oranges. It is used in chemical synthesis as a precursor to carvone and as a renewably based solvent in cleaning products. Limonene takes its name from the lemon as the rind of lemon, like other citrus fruits, contains considerable amounts of this compound, which contributes to their odor. Limonene is common in cosmetic products. As the main odor constituent of citrus, D-limonene is used in food manufacturing and some medicines, e.g. as a flavoring to mask the bitter taste of alkaloids, and as a fragrant in perfumery; it is also used as botanical insecticide.(www.cleanairgardening.com/insectkiller1.html) The active D-Limonene destroys the wax coating of the insect’s respiratory system. When applied directly, the insect suffocates. It is desiccant that it destroys the insect’s cuticle of oil. (www.quizzlet.com) Onion

The onion (Allium cepa), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is used as a vegetable and is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium. Allium cepa is exclusively known from cultivation but related wild species occur in Central Asia. Onions are often chopped and used as an ingredient in various hearty warm dishes, and may also be used as a main ingredient. Fresh onion has a pungent, persistent, even irritating taste, but when sautéed, onion becomes sweet and less pungent. Onions contain chemical compounds with potential anti-inflammatory, anti-cholesterol, anti-cancer, and anti-oxidant properties. As onions are sliced or eaten, cells are broken, allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulfoxides and generate sulfenic acids.

A specific sulfenic acid, 1-propenesulfenic acid, formed when onions are cut. Onions have particularly large cells that are readily observed by the human eye at low magnification; consequently, onion tissue is frequently used in science education for demonstrating microscope usage and for learning about the structure of cells.(en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onion) The pungent juice of onions has been used as a moth repellent and can be rubbed on the skin to prevent insect bites. When applied to the scalp it is said to promote growth of hair and on theface to reduce freckling. It has been used to polish glass and copperware and to prevent rust on iron. If boiling water is poured onto chopped onions and left to cool, the resulting liquor can be sprayed onto plants to increase their resistance to pests, and the onion plants when growing are reputed to keep away moles and insects. Onion skins have been used to produce a yellow-brown dye. (www.blurtit.com) Cockroach

Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattaria or Blattodea, of which about 30 species out of 4,500 total are associated with human habitats. About four species are well known as pests. Among the best-known pest species are the American cockroach, Periplanetaamericana, which is about 30 mm (1.2 in) long; the German cockroach, Blattellagermanica, about 15 mm (0.59 in) long; the Asian cockroach, Blattellaasahinai, also about 15 mm (0.59 in) in length; and the Oriental cockroach, Blattaorientalis, about 25 mm (0.98 in). Tropical cockroaches are often much bigger, and extinct cockroach relatives and ‘roachoids’ such as the Carboniferous Archimylacris and the PermianApthoroblattina were not as large as the biggest modern species. Cockroaches live in a wide range of environments around the world. Pest species adapt readily to a variety of environments, but prefer warm conditions found within buildings. Many tropical species prefer even warmer environments and do not fare well in the average household.Cockroaches are mainly nocturnal and will run away when exposed to light. A peculiar exception is the Asian cockroach, which is attracted to light.

The spines on the legs were earlier considered to be sensory, but observations of their locomotion on sand and wire meshes have demonstrated they help in locomotion on difficult terrain. The structures have been used as inspiration for robotic legs. Cockroaches leave chemical trails in their feces, as well as emitting airborne pheromones for swarming and mating. These chemical trails transmit bacteria onto surfaces. Other cockroaches will follow these trails to discover sources of food and water, and also discover where other cockroaches are hiding. Thus, cockroaches can exhibit emergent behavior, in which group or swarm behavior emerges from a simple set of individual interactions. Cockroaches are one of the most commonly noted household pest insects. They feed on human and pet food and can leave an offensive odor. They can also passively transport microbes on their body surfaces including those that are potentially dangerous to humans, particularly in environments such as hospitals. Cockroaches are linked with allergic reactions in humans. One of the proteins that trigger allergic reactions is tropomyosin.

These allergens are also linked with asthma. There are a number of diseases and conditions that can be caused by a large infestation of cockroaches in the home. Although the cockroach does not necessarily carry the disease itself, as it has a hairy body and legs it can spread infection easily and that is why it can spread diseases.Over 30 diseases can be spread by cockroaches. These include e coli, salmonella and dysentery. As a result of a large infestation of cockroaches in your walls at home, this may actually cause asthma in young children who are very sensitive to allergens. This can be caused by the build-up of the feces in the walls that can then become airborne. (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cockroach)

The researchers found out that the Natural cockroach killer has a great potential in eliminating cockroaches. With the use of Calamansi extract , onion extract and water , a solution was made that at first after application , attacked cockroaches through their trachea , then later on weakening its body systems which led to its inevitable death. As each cockroach killer are applied on the cockroaches, there is an adverse effect to them. The active D-limonene from the calamansi extract of each mixtures of the natural cockroach killer effectively destroyed the wax coating of the cockroach’s respiratory system and thereby suffocation happens. When the Cockroach undergoes suffocation, it is having a less tendency of coping up due to the fact that its respiratory system has the most important function.

The Syn-propanethial oxide then weakens the body of the cockroach due to its property that causes irritation to pests.As the irritation increase its duration , the more effort the cockroach would be exerting just to feel stable. But then it loss the energy therefore it would die. At a minimum of five (5) minutes, fatalities among cockroaches are rest assured. From its time of suffocation, at an expected 30 seconds, the cockroach, most affected, will lose its life. Due to the availability of materials to be used , those who would create a natural cockroach killer using Calamansi and onion extract would be able to save money and time since you only have to slice calamansi and onion off then pound the onion using a clean mortar and pestle.

In most common households, cockroaches are expected to have dwelled in there and as we know cockroaches bring lots of pathogens and bacteria that could invade our immune system and leaving us ill. So to take this problem out of their black list , the researchers recommend the natural Cockroach killer. You can have either of the percentage per mixture but the higher concentrations of Calamansi and onion extract were observed to be more effective. You would be using at least 5 Calamansi fruits and 2 onion bulbs and a liter of tap water (includes the use for cleaning).Extract the juice from the fruit and the bulb then mixing it at a specific amount which follows the percentage of each of the ingredients. After having it mixed, you have to shake it well because what you made is a suspension .Then applies it to an area where cockroaches usually gather. For a set ratio of application, at least 10 ml should be applied per 1 m2 .


Calamondin (n.d.). Retrieved Nov.30, 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calamondin. Limonene (n.d). RetrievedNov.30, 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limonene Onion (n.d) Retrieved Nov.30, 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onion Cockroach (n.d.). Retrieved Nov.30, 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cockroach Calamondin (n.d.). Retrieved Nov.30, 2013 from http://www.fnri.dost.gov.ph Limonene (n.d.).Retrieved Nov.30, 2013 fromhttp://www.cleanairgardening.com.html Limonene (n.d).Retrieved Nov.30, 2013 from http://www.quizzlet.com Onion (n.d.) Retrieved Nov. 30, 2013 from http://www.blurtit.com

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