Andy Mulligan’s 2010 Novel Trash explores the vital idea of poverty demonstrated by the condition Behala a trash dump, the area Gardo, Raphael and Rat call home, it appears a desparately squalid land where the most impoverished people dig through mountains of garbage to carve out a livelihood for themselves and their families. Andy mulligan persuades throughout the book that status or wealth does not affect anyone’s resourcefulness. The boys teach us about resourcefulness and how we should never stop trying and is a key idea that strengthens this book. Raphael found a small leather bag and chose not to give it in to the police. That decision brought with it terrifying consequences. “The man was shaking, and everything was spinning, and there was my blood.” Soon the dumpsite boys used all of their cunning and courage to stay ahead of their pursuers. “Some other part of me begging me not to give it up maybe for Jose Angelico”.
It was up to Raphael, Gardo, and Rat—boys who have no education, no parents, no homes, and no money to solve the mystery. Andy mulligan has written a powerful story about unimaginable poverty and the ambition that can transcend it. The world we are taken into in Trash was realistic and distressing at times. Especially if you think about the millions of children around the world who live in such conditions. “The absence of money is drought in which nothing can grow. Nobody knows the value of water until they have lived in a dry place like Behala.” Raphael and his friends Gardo and Jun-Jun are characters who are never sorry for themselves. They know life is tough and they get on with things, finding the positive in many things we take Andy mulligan informs us that key to success Is friendship is and teamwork.
He ends the novel with the protagonist Raphael, Gardo and rat starting their new life together. In the course of the novel, they faced many challenges and their friendships grows. He shows the meaning of friendship through the bond between Raphhael and Gardo throughout the book. Gardo is like a big brother to Raphael. He is strong and protective, never leaving Raphael’s side. The two go through everything together. Such as when Raphael is arrested, Gardo feels it too, “Gardo was right with me at once, and he was talking fast, saying, “What are you doing? What has he done?” P. 56. This tells the reader just how much Gardo cares about Raphael and through out the whole book Gardo continues to display his caring nature.