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Anatomy and Physiology Essay

The primary goal of this lab is to learn the names of many blood vessels. You will use the models provided as well as pictures in your lab book.

Microscopic Structure of Blood Vessels

Tunica intima: lines the lumen of the blood vessel. Continuous with endocardium of heart. Is extremely smooth to decrease resistance to blood flow. (Made of epithelium)

Tunica media: More bulky middle coat. Composed of smooth muscle and elastin. Regulation in the diameter of blood vessels, which alters peripheral resistance and blood pressure.

Tunica externa (adventitia): Outermost tunic. Function is primarily supportive and protective (areolar and fibrous CT)

Generalized Structure of Arteries, Veins and Capillaries

Types of Blood Vessels

Elastic arteries: Contain much elastic tissue
Larger arteries closer to the heart
Must expand when heart pumps much blood into them and then passively recoil after blood passes by.
Thus, must withstand pressure fluctuations

Muscular arteries: Have less elastic tissue, but substantial muscle tissue
Smaller arteries farther from heart
Exposed to less extreme pressure fluctuations

Veins: Far from heart
Not subjected to pressure fluctuations
Are low pressure vessels thus are thin walled
Blood flows against gravity so
1. Have larger lumens
2. Have valves to prevent backflow
3. Skeletal muscle pump

Capillaries: Tiniest vessels
One cell layer thick: endothelium with underlying basal lamina (tunica intima)
Thinnest for making exchanges between blood and tissue cells

Activity One
Observing a vein and an artery on a microscope slide.

Major Systemic Arteries of the Body

Activity Two
Use the models provided to find arteries listed
Use pictures on the following pages to assist
Both models and pictures will be used on the test

Major Systemic Veins of the Body

Activity Three
Use the models provided to find veins listed
Use pictures on the following pages to assist
Both models and pictures will be used on the test

Special Circulations
Pulmonary Circulation

Does not serve metabolic needs of body tissues
Function is to bring blood close to alveoli in order do gas exchange
Pulmonary arteries are structurally similar to veins
Create a low pressure bed in the lungs
Carry deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs
Pulmonary veins

Essay Topics:

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