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Protocol numbers Essay

Protocol numbers are used to configure firewalls, routers, and proxy servers. In Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4, Request for Comments [RFC] 791I), the protocol number can be found in the Protocol field of an IP header.ICMP Echos are used mostly for troubleshooting. When there are 2 hosts which have communication problems, a few simple ICMP Echo requests will show if the 2 hosts have their TCP/IP stacks configured correctly and if there are any problems with the routes packets are taking in order to get to the other side ICMP Echo Information

Type Name Reference
Echo Reply [RFC792]

No Code

1 Unassigned [JBP]

2 Unassigned [JBP]

3 Destination Unreachable [RFC792]

0 Net Unreachable
1 Host Unreachable
2 Protocol Unreachable
3 Port Unreachable
4 Fragmentation Needed and Don’t Fragment was Set
5 Source Route Failed
6 Destination Network Unknown
7 Destination Host Unknown
8 Source Host Isolated
9 Communication with Destination Network is Administratively Prohibited
10 Communication with Destination Host is Administratively Prohibited
11 Destination Network Unreachable for Type of Service
12 Destination Host Unreachable for Type of Service
13 Communication Administratively Prohibited [RFC1812]
14 Host Precedence Violation [RFC1812]
15 Precedence cutoff in effect [RFC1812]

4 Source Quench [RFC792]
No Code

5 Redirect [RFC792]

Redirect Datagram for the Network (or subnet)
1 Redirect Datagram for the Host
2 Redirect Datagram for the Type of Service and Network
3 Redirect Datagram for the Type of Service and Host

6 Alternate Host Address [JBP]

Alternate Address for Host

7 Unassigned [JBP]

8 Echo [RFC792]

No Code

9 Router Advertisement [RFC1256]

0 No Code

10 Router Selection [RFC1256]

0 No Code

11 Time Exceeded [RFC792]

0 Time to Live exceeded in Transit
1 Fragment Reassembly Time Exceeded

12 Parameter Problem [RFC792]

0 Pointer indicates the error
1 Missing a Required Option [RFC1108]
2 Bad Length

13 Timestamp [RFC792]

0 No Code

14 Timestamp Reply [RFC792]

0 No Code

15 Information Request [RFC792]

0 No Code

16 Information Reply [RFC792]

0 No Code

17 Address Mask Request [RFC950]

0 No Code

18 Address Mask Reply [RFC950]

1 No Code


Service names are assigned on a first-come, first-served process, as documented in [RFC6335].

Port numbers are assigned in various ways, based on three ranges: System Ports (0-1023), User Ports (1024-49151), and the Dynamic and/or Private Ports (49152-65535); the difference uses of these ranges is described in [RFC6335]. System Ports are assigned by IETF

process for standards-track protocols, as per [RFC6335]. User Ports are assigned by IANA using the “IETF Review” process, the “IESG Approval” process, or the “Expert Review” process, as per [RFC6335]. Dynamic Ports are not assigned.

The registration procedures for service names and port numbers are described in [RFC6335].

Assigned ports both System and User ports SHOULD NOT be used without or prior to IANA registration.

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